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Page Title: Cake Making
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all other ingredients. It controls the consistency of the finished cake batter. Salt brings out the flavor of the other ingredients. Leavening  is  accomplished  in  three  ways:  (1) incorporation   of   air   during   mixing,   (2)   chemical leavening, and (3) vaporization of the liquids in the dough by the heat of the oven. Cake  Mixes Cake  mixes  are  convenient  to  use  as  they  require shorter   preparation   time,   less   storage   space,   no refrigeration, and less training and experience to prepare successfully than cakes made from recipes using the basic ingredients. Cake mixes are available in a variety of flavors and preparation instructions are printed on the containers.  Cake  mixes  are  complete  mixes  that  require only the addition of water. They contain a leavening agent,  bicarbonate  of  soda  (baking  soda),  packed separately  inside  the  container.  The  soda  packet  should be mixed thoroughly with the dry ingredients before adding  water.  Cheesecake  mix  is  combined  with  milk before  mixing. No  baking  is  required.  Recipes  for variation to cake mixes are given in the AFRS. Cake Making In  addition  to  the  proper  selection  of  ingredients, accurate  measuring,  and  proper  mixing,  other  factors influence  the  finished  product. CAKE  PANS.—  Cake  pans  should  be  handled carefully so they do not warp or bend. You should not usc pans that are bent out of shape because cakes will be uneven in shape and cola. Cake pans maybe greased or greased and dusted with flour, or they may be lined with wax or kraft paper. Some recipes call for a pan coating made from shortening and flour mixed together. Pans for angel food cake should not be greased because the fat will keep the cake from rising. Each AFRS cake recipe specifies which method is used. PAN CLEANING.—  If grease is allowed to build up in pans, especially in comers, it can become rancid and give a very objectionable taste. Care should be taken to clean baking pans thoroughly each time they are  used. SCALING.— Scaling too much batter or using the wrong size pan can cause the cake to fail. Follow the instructions  given  on  the  specific  recipe  card.  The AFRS cake recipes are designed to yield the correct amount of batter for standard 18- by 26-inch sheet cake pans. Use only lightweight sheet pans. If heavier sheet pans are used, they will cause overdone products. Other pan sizes may be used such as 9-inch layer pans or 16-inch square sheet pans. A listing of pans and sizes is found on the AFRS guideline cards. OVEN   TEMPERATURES.—   Set the oven at the temperature specified in the recipe or in the cake mix directions and allow enough time for it to reach the correct temperature so that the cake can be placed in the oven at the specified baking temperature as soon as it is mixed. The oven thermostat should be checked from time to time to make sure it is working properly. Allow space in the oven between the pans so that heat can circulate. Cake pans should be placed so that they do not touch each other or the sides of the oven. If the oven is’ too hot, the cake will have a peaked, cracked surface and will be too brown. It will also be dry and shrink excessively. If the cake is baked too rapidly,  the  outer  edges  will  be  done  while  the  center will  be  uncooked  and  the  cake  will  fall  when  it  is removed  from  the  oven.  If  the  temperature  is  too  low, the  cake  will  not  rise  well.  The  AFRS  guideline  cards give the cause of cake defects and failures. BAKING.—  During baking, the proteins in the flour and eggs coagulate and the starch in the flour swells and absorbs moisture, causing the cake to become firm. Baking takes place in four stages. In the first stage, the batter is fluid and rises rapidly as the leavening develops.  In  the  second  stage,  the  batter  continues  to rise and the cake becomes higher in the center than at the edges. Bubbles rise to the top, the surface begins to brown, and the batter begins to become firm on the edges. In the third stage, the cake has completed rising and it becomes freer and browner. In the fourth stage, browning  is  completed  and  the  structure  is  set.  When you are baking in a conventional oven, do not open the oven door until baking time is almost ended or the cake may  fall. USING CONVECTION OVENS.— Baking times are  shorter  and  cooking  temperatures  lower  in convection  ovens  than  in  conventional  ovens.  The AFRS  guideline  cards  list  specific  times  and temperatures. Overloading convection ovens will cause cakes  to  bake  unevenly.  When  operating  a  convection oven, you should turn off the fan when loading and unloading. To load cakes into convection ovens, you should start with the bottom rack and center the pans, taking care not to touch the heating elements. Leave 1 to 2 inches between pans so air can circulate. After you load the cakes, allow them to bake for 7 to 10 minutes 8-17

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