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Page Title: Fermentation
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sticky and more elastic. When this happens, the back of the  bowl  begins  to  be  cleared  of  dough  and  eventually becomes  completely  clear.  At  this  time  you  should  use careful judgment not to allow the mixing to progress too far or the dough will breakdown to a point where it loses elasticity and becomes sticky and runny. There is no rule governing the mixing time for dough other than the feel and appearance of the dough. When the mixing process is completed, the temperature of the dough should range between 78°F and 82°F. FERMENTATION.— After the mixing operation, the dough is either left in the mixing bowl or placed in a dough trough to ferment. Fermentation is the chemical change that takes place when yeast (or other leavening agent) in the bread releases carbon dioxide gas, causing the dough to rise. The fermentation period is the time that elapses between the mixing of the dough and the time the yeast is killed by the oven heat. The correct temperature for the dough during  fermentation  is  indicated  on  the  recipe  card.  A higher temperature will cause the growth of undesirable bacteria  (wild  yeast)  and  excessive  acidity,  which  will result in a coarse-grained bread of poor flavor. The  length  of  the  fermentation  period  depends  on the amount of yeast used, the strength of the flour, and the  temperature  during  fermentation.  Too  much  yeast and higher temperatures than those designated cause the dough  to  rise  too  fast. Insufficiently fermented or conditioned dough is called “young dough” while that which has fermented too long is known as “old dough.” PUNCHING.— Punching the dough after it rises develops the gluten and also redistributes the yeast cells. The temperature of the dough is equalized, and some of the carbon dioxide gas is forced out. Yeast dough is ready for punching when it is light and approximately double in size. To test the dough to determine if it is ready  for  punching,  press  the  dough  lightly  with  a fingertip. If the impression closes up immediately, the dough  is  not  ready.  If  the  impression  recedes  slightly,  it is ready to be punched or folded. The dough should then be  punched. To punch the dough you should use both hands and punch the dough through the center, going from end to end of the dough trough. Then, use both hands to grasp one side of the dough and pull it on top, once again working from end to end of the dough trough. To punch dough in a mixing bowl, punch the center, fold sides into the center, then turn completely over. After the dough has  rested  for  approximately  30  minutes,  it  should  be taken from the bowl or trough to the bench for makeup. 8-5 DOUGH MAKEUP.—  The  dough  is  divided  into uniform pieces of the desired weight. When you are dividing the dough by hand, cut off the dough with the dough scraper and weigh the dough on a scale. Use the scraper to add or remove dough until the desired weight is obtained. This process is referred to as scaling. In a machine-operated  bakeshop,  the  baker  scales  the  pieces by machine, making adjustments so that the pieces will be  the  desired  weight. ROUNDING THE DOUGH.—  After  scaling,  the dough is rounded by tucking the raw edges and forming a smooth round ball. This process seals the raw edges that are left after the dough is divided. INTERMEDIATE PROOFING.—   T he intermediate  proofing  period  is  a  stage  when  the rounded  piece  of  dough  is  allowed  to  rest  between  the time it is divided and rounded and the time it is formed for  panning.  The  intermediate  proofing  period  should be just long enough for a piece of dough to recover from being divided and rounded. The dough should be loose enough so that it can be easily molded. This requires from 12 to 15 minutes, depending on the dough and the conditions  of  the  room. Some of the advantages of rounding and giving the dough intermediate proof are it achieves uniform shape, facilitates  panning,  makes  texture  uniform,  stretches gluten slowly, expels excess gas, and forms skin on surface of dough. MOLDING  AND  PANNING.—   The  pieces  of dough are shaped so that they can rise in the pan and form a shaped loaf of bread. Use the following steps in hand  molding: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Place each piece of dough on the board, top side down. Use as little dusting flour as possible. Press  the  gas  out  of  the  dough  and  pull lengthwise carefully, shaping the dough into an oblong loaf about the length of a finished loaf of bread. Flatten the dough with your hands or with a rolling  pin. Shape the dough by folding in the ends to form a rectangle. Fold the dough lengthwise to the center and seal by  firm  finger  pressure. Fold over the other half of the dough and press for  additional  seal. Roll  the  dough  to  complete  the  sealing  and molding of the loaf.

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