Fish Tapeworm Infection
Fish tapeworm is transmitted by infected fish that
has not been thoroughly cooked. For purposes of safety,
always make sure fish is thoroughly cooked and is never
tasted in the raw state.
MOLDS AND YEASTS
Other types of cell life that may not be harmful are
molds and yeasts.
Molds are composed of many cells and maybe very
small or large enough to cover an entire wall. They grow
best in dark, damp places where temperatures are
favorable. Some molds are valuable in the production
of medicines such as penicillin; other molds may cause
certain infections in human beings.
Molds spoil the taste of food and eventually destroy
it. Molds may be removed from certain foods and the
remainder of the food used. Consult your medical
department on the precautions to be taken.
Like bacteria, yeasts are single-celled. They
reproduce by budding.
When a bud becomes
sufficiently large, it separates from the original cell and
becomes an independent cell. Certain yeasts are used
in breadmaking, vinegar fermentation, and the
manufacture of beverages.
It is evident that the foodservice worker is the most
important link in the transmission of disease through
The workers health, personal habits,
understanding of bacteria, and the methods of preparing
and serving of food are of concern not only to
themselves but also to their shipmates as well.
An understanding of bacteria is valuable to all
personnel and essential to those who work with food in
any way. Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms; so
small they are visible only under a microscope. They
are widely distributed in the air, water, soil, and in
animal and plant tissues.
Bacteria are classified
according to their shape.
Those round in shape are
called cocci; the rod-shaped ones are called bacilli; and
the spiral-shaped ones are called spirilla.
Since bacteria camnnot be seen, our best defense
against the harmful bacteria is strict adherence to
sanitation principles. Bacteria can move of their own
accord only in liquids and cannot leave a fluid surface
unless transported as passengers by other agents such
as dust, food dishes, silverware, cooking utensils, dirty
fingers or fingernails, a common drinking cup, a hand
towel, water, insects, or rodents.
Bacteria reproduce themselves simply by dividing
in half. On the average each bacterium, under favorable
conditions, will divide and become two bacteria every
20 minutes. The rate of multiplication or growth of
bacteria is affected by heat or cold. Certain types of
bacteria, if allowed to grow and multiply, produce toxins
that cause food poisoning. Boiling will kill all bacteria,
but it will not kill the toxins once they are allowed to
form. Certain strains of the staphylococcus bacteria will
withstand boiling temperature for long periods of time
before they are killed and are virtually impossible to kill
by normal cooking methods. Once toxins have been
allowed to form, no amount of cooking will make the
food safe. Refrigeration will prevent the bacteria from
producing toxins but will not kill the toxins once they
Since foodservice personnel are considered to be
the most likely mode of transmission of disease through
food, certain requirements such as medical
examinations, sanitation training, and personal hygiene
must be completed before such personnel can work in
food preparation areas.
All foodservice personnel including personnel
employed by civilian contract services must be
examined and determined to be free from
communicable diseases before initial assignment in
foodservice. Subsequent physical examinations will be
conducted annually. The physical examination must be
sufficiently comprehensive to detect acute or chronic
Laboratory tests and other diagnostic
determinations are performed at the discretion of the
senior medical officer; however, all foodservice
personnel must be examined for evidence of
tuberculosis. Employees of contract services must be
examined by either local or military medical