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Page Title: Radiological Decontamination
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the   presence   and   the   extent   of   radioactive contamination. Decontamination  operations  should  be  carried  out as required. Food items in glass or metal containers or sealed in barrier-wrap packages are the least likely to be contaminated. These   should,   nevertheless,   be monitored, and care should be exercised upon opening such packages to avoid contamination. The fresh water supply  should  be  monitored.  Food  items  should  be monitored in their dry state because dilution with water will  substantially  lower  the  beta  readings  and  the presence of alpha particles may not even show up on radiac instruments. All food items, when they have been monitored,  must  be  clearly  marked  as  Contaminated  or Safe for Use. All food items should be cleared for use after monitoring if found to be within acceptable limits established  by  the  local  command  according  to  the Radiation   Health   Protection   Manual,   NAVMED P-5055. When  materials  (cleaning  agents)  specifically designed  for  the  removal  of  radioactive  contaminants are   available,   they   should   be   used   according   to instructions and the material safety data sheet (MSDS). When they are not available, the following solutions are suggested for the general cleaning of galley surfaces: Formula 1 Detergent  general-purpose,  liquid,  water-soluble, type I, 1/2 pound. Military specification MIL-D-16791. Sodium phosphate, tribasic, technical (trisodium phosphate),  1/2  pound.  Federal  specification  O-S-642, type  II. Water, hot, 12 gallons, 100 pounds. Directions: The  sodium  phosphate  should  be completely dissolved by stirring it into hot water. The liquid detergent should be added and stirred until it is thoroughly  dispersed. Formula  2 RADIOLOGICAL DECONTAMINATION There   are   various   methods   of   removing contamination. They differ ineffectiveness in removing the contaminant, in applicability to given surfaces, and in the rate of operation. These, in general, fall into two classes,  gross  or  rough  decontamination  and  detailed decontamination.  Gross  decontamination  consists  of  a rapid  washing  down  with  large  quantities  of uncontaminated water from a fire hose or nozzle system. This class is generally not suitable for use in galley and messing   areas   except   for   decks. Detailed decontamination procedures are more thorough. These procedures use more time, manpower, and material, but they are also more effective. Detailed decontamination will be necessary in galley and messing areas. Efforts to  decontaminate  with  heavily  contaminated  water  will obviously be ineffective. However, water contaminated to a lesser degree than the surface contamination to be removed  may  still  be  used.  Water  used  for decontamination  must  be  allowed  to  drain  freely  from contaminated  areas.  Water  from  tightly  covered  storage tanks   should   be   safe   and   potable,   provided   the circulating system is tight. Water from open reservoirs cannot be relied upon to be free from contamination. Seawater in the neighborhood of an aerial burst to windward  will  be  contaminated  at  the  surface.  A subsurface burst will heavily contaminate seawater in the  vicinity.  General  knowledge  of  the  local  situation and a monitor survey should provide data on which a decision  regarding  the  water  supply  will  be  based. Dishwashing compound, machine, granular, free flowing.   Federal   specification   P-D-425a   (specify whether hard or soft water will be used). Directions:  The  compound  should  be  dissolved  in hot  water  to  make  a  0.5  percent  (approximate)  solution (1 pound per 25 gallons of water). The solution should be hot when it is used. Formula 3 Citric  acid,  monohydrate,  granular  form.  Military specification  MIL-A-11029  (Cml),  Change  No.  3223. Directions: Citric  acid  should  be  dissolved  by stirring to make a 3 percent (approximate) solution (3 pounds per 12 gallons of water). In use, utensils should be  immersed  and  metal  surfaces  should  be  sprayed. Except for citric acid, the previous materials are commonly  used  and  are  readily  available.  The suggested formulas are not intended to take the place of agents   specified   in   existing   decontamination instructions. They constitute the bare minimum as substitutes  and  should  serve  to  meet  immediate emergency requirements. All chemical cleaning agents function  most  efficiently  when  hot.  The  choice  of method  and  cleaning  agent  to  be  used  should  depend upon the nature of the surface to be decontaminated, the kind  and  degree  of  contamination,  and  the  time, manpower, and materials available to do the work. All  these  cleaning  agents  are  hazardous  materials. Always  wear  goggles  and  protective  gloves  when 1-18

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