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Page Title: Refrigerators
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STEAM TABLE Steam tables are used for serving hot foods. There are  several  types:  (a)  those  with  water  compartments heated by steam coils at 40 psi of pressure or less; (b) those with steam-heated water compartments and dish warmers; (c) those with water compartments heated by immersion-electric  heating  elements;  and  (d)  dish warmers. Most  steam  tables  used  in  general  and  private messes  today  are  immersion-electric  heating  element types. Operation Do not overload food pans. An excessive amount of food makes it difficult to maintain the correct water compartment  temperature  which  is  between  180°F  to 200°F. If, on the other hand, water in the steam table is allowed to become hotter than 200°F, the food will dry rapidly and continue cooking from the excess heat. You can correct this by adding more water to reduce the heat. Because food tastes best if served within 30 minutes (preferably within 15 minutes) after being placed on the steam table, do not place food pans on the steam table too early. Care  and  Cleaning After each meal, drain the steam table, wash the tanks with hot soapy water, and rinse with very hot fresh water of at least 180°F. Wash the top and front of the steam table to make it bright, clean, and sterile; then wipe it dry with a clean cloth. ELECTRIC  TOASTERS Electric toasters used in the galley and dining area are the intermittent and rotary types. The intermittent type  is  composed  of  chrome-plated  steel  and  has  a vertical oven with two to four openings for inserting the bread slices. The continuous type has a chrome-plated heavy-duty conveyor with motor-driven trays for the bread. Rotary  toasters  are  cleaned  by  first  disconnecting the power. After toaster is cooled, remove pan, slide, and baskets. Use soft brush to remove crumbs from front surface and behind bread racks. Wipe clean frame as  far  as  is  accessible  with  warm  hand-detergent solution.  Use  a  nonabrasive  cleaner  to  remove  stubborn spots. Clean baskets by boiling in hot detergent water. rinse, and air dry. Then, clean and replace all parts. 4-23 SHAPER,  POTATO  MIX  (EXTRACTOR) Potato  shapers  are  used  to  reconstitute  dehydrated potatoes into formed french fries. They are available with  optional  shaping  heads  and  a  conveyor.  Some  of the shaper accessories are dicers, onion rings, steak fries,  shoestrings,  and  hash-browns. Follow   the   manufacturer’s   instructions   and procedures of operation and cleaning of this equipment. REFRIGERATORS Refrigerators are designed for storing foods for short  periods  of  time. Most  refrigerators  installed aboard ship have movable bars that fit in front of each shelf  to  keep  the  contents  of  the  refrigerator  from moving or falling out when the door is opened. At sea, food must be stored in such a way that it will not move around  when  the  ship  rolls.  To  keep  a  refrigerator operating at top efficiency, three things are important: . Keep it clean. . Do not overload it. l Defrost it regularly and properly. Defrosting You  may  defrost  the  refrigerator  on  a  schedule  or when the frost accumulation requires it. The number of times  that  a  refrigerator  requires  defrosting  depends,  of course, on the rate at which frost builds up on the cooling unit.  Ice  formations  should  never  be  more  than one-fourth of an inch thick because ice and frost act as insulators  and  reduce  efficiency. Defrosting  is  done  by  turning  off  the  refrigerator; removing  all  food,  and  blocking  the  doors  open. Defrosting may be speeded up, however, by placing pans of hot water in the freezer compartment. Do not scrape or chip the ice from the cooling coils as they are easily damaged, and do not pour hot water over the ice accumulation to melt it. Cleaning the Refrigerator A refrigerator that is not thoroughly clean will quickly develop a bad odor and the foods in it will spoil. Cleanliness avoids the growth of mold and bacteria that often cause food poisoning. A refrigerator should be cleaned at least once a week and after each defrosting. Never use a water hose in cleaning a refrigerator. The

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