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Page Title: Grilling
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PANFRYING.— Sautéing or shallow panfrying is done on the range or griddle in a pan with just enough fat  to  keep  the  meat  from  sticking.  This  method  of cooking is sometimes more economical and less work when a small amount of food is to be fried The fat should be heated to the proper temperature before the meat is placed into it; otherwise, the meat will absorb too much of the fat and will be unappetizing. The correct temperatures are indicated on the recipe cards. Liver, any tender meats (such as grill steaks), and meat mixtures that are breaded or floured may be fried with  good  results. DEEP-FAT  FRYING.—  Deep-fat  frying  is  done  by completely immersing the meat in heated deep fat and allowing it to remain in the fat until it is done. Meat that is to be deep fried should be breaded to prevent  an  excessive  loss  of  moisture.  It  is  also important to have the fat at the proper temperature. If it is   too   hot,   the   exterior   of   the   meat   will   brown excessively  before  the  interior  has  had  time  to  cook.  If it is too cool, the meat will absorb too much fat and be greasy. A deep-fat thermometer is the only accurate way to determine the temperature of the fat. For best results, the pieces to be fried should be of uniform size, and the basket should not be overloaded. Just enough pieces should be placed in the basket to completely cover the bottom of the fry basket. This method permits the hot fat to completely surround the meat  and  ensures  thorough  cooking.  When  the  basket is overloaded, the fat is cooled excessively, and the hot fat  cannot  circulate  freely. Fry only one kind of meat or food item at a time. Fry the meat as quickly as possible and only as needed (practice batch cookery). Drain to remove excess fat after cooking, then salt or season.  Never salt or season food directly over the fryer. OVEN   FRYING.—   Oven  frying  is  similar  to baking or roasting except fat is added. Food may be oven fried with or without breading. DRY  HEAT  COOKING  METHODS Dry heat refers to cooking meat uncovered without adding moisture.   Dry  heat  methods  include  roasting, baking, broiling, and grilling. These methods are used for tender cuts of meat that have little connective tissue. Grilling Grill steaks, beef patties with soy, ham slices, bacon, liver, and pork sausage are suitable for grilling. In grilling, the meat is placed directly on the ungreased griddle. The heat is transmitted to the meat from the hot metal  of  the  griddle. A  moderate  temperature  is maintained  that  prevents  the  meat  from  overbrowning. Enough fat cooks out to keep the meat from sticking. Excess  fat  should  be  removed  as  it  collects  to  prevent the meat from frying. Tongs or a food turner should be used to turn the meat. Do not use a fork to turn the meat because puncturing the meat with the tines of a fork allows the juices to escape. If the juices escape the meat becomes dry and coarse. Check the AFRS for cuts of beef, lamb, and pork that may be grilled. Pork requires thorough cooking to bring out its full flavor. Braised pork chops are more desirable from the standpoint of aroma, texture, tenderness, and flavor of the lean meat. If pork chops and pork steaks are grilled, they  require  additional  cooking  in  the  oven  to  ensure complete  doneness.  Veal  is  usually  not  grilled  because it is a lean meat and has an abundance of connective tissue that requires long, slow cooking. Grilled  meat  is  usually  turned  only  once.  The seasoning is applied to the cooked side just after it is turned. Broiling Broiling  is  cooking  by  dry  heat.  Conventional  and continuous  broilers  are  available  in  some  Navy  GMs. For   cooking   times   and   temperatures,   check   the manufacturer’s directions for cooking meats. Steaks and hamburgers are generally cooked using broilers. Where broilers are not available, grills are used Roasting  and  Baking The word roasting describes the cooking of meat by dry heat in an oven. Any tender cut of beef, pork, or lamb may be roasted. Baking is the preparation method used in roasting ham, meat loaf, fish, and some chicken recipes. Roasting pans should be of a heavy material with low sides that allow meat to be cooked by hot air freely circulating over and around the meat. Open pan roasting will  brown  roasts  evenly.  Do  not  crowd  roasts.  Season meat as directed on the AFRS recipes. If racks are available, place roasts on racks to allow juices and fat to drain from roasts as they are cooked. 6-9

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