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The First Subamrine
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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John Paul Jones -Continued
subsurface craft before finally completing it  in  1775. Bushnell,  a  Yale  medical  student,  hoped  the  craft would  help  drive  the  British  away  from  American shores for good. Bushnell  described  this  first  warfare  submarine (fig.    2-l),    named    the   Turtle,    as    having    “some resemblance to two upper tortoise shells of equal size, joined together. . . . ” It was 7.5 feet deep and, under ideal conditions, had a maximum speed of 3 knots. A single operator could stay submerged in the craft for 30 minutes. The  Turtle  was  armed  with  an  oak  casing  filled with  150  pounds  of  explosives.  This  charge  could  be attached  to  the  bottom  of  an  enemy  ship  where  it would remain until detonated by a simple clockwork mechanism. After  completing  the  submarine,  Bushnell  took  it for several  dives  to  prove  its  seaworthiness.  Finally, on 6 September 1776, he was ready to use it against the British in New York harbor. Sergeant Ezra Lee, a volunteer from the  Connecticut militia, maneuvered the  Turtle  by  using  hand-operated  screw  propellers. The plan was for Sergeant Lee to use screws to attach a time-fuse charge of gunpowder to a ship’s hull. The mission   was   aborted   when   the   auger   could   not penetrate the copper sheathing on the hull of Admiral Howe’s flagship, the HMS Eagle. Bushnell  made  a  couple  of  more  attempts  to  use the Turtle against the British in the Delaware River. These  times  he  tried  attaching  mines  to  the  Turtle and  floating  them  against  the  enemy  ships.  These attempts  failed,   and   the   British   finally   sunk   the submarine  in  New  York  harbor  (the  first  recorded instance of an antisubmarine attack). JOHN PAUL JONES Emerging  from  the  revolutionary  war  was  one  of the  Navy’s  greatest  heroes   and   tradition   makers, John Paul Jones (fig. 2-2). Jones 134.4 Figure 2-2.-John Paul Jones, father of our highest naval traditions, represents the seaman, leader, officer, and gentleman at their best. 2-3

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