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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Chapter 18 External Equipment of Ships
against  damage  is  to  prevent  it.  If  damage  occurs, however,  all  hands  must  be  trained  in  damage control procedures to prevent the loss of the ship. SUMMARY In this chapter we introduced you to the major structural  components  of  ships  and  how  they affect  the  watertight  integrity  of  the  ship.  We  also explained   the   system   of   numbering   ship compartments. The  four  primary  propulsion  plants  used  by the  Navy  are  the  conventional  steam  turbine, diesel  engine,  gas  turbine,  and  nuclear  power plant.   We   discussed   the   advantages   and   dis- advantages  of  each  type. Last  but  not  least,  we  talked  about  damage control.   Once   again,   remember   that   damage control  is  an  all-hands  evolution. KNOT REFERENCES Basic  Military  Requirements,  NAVEDTRA 12043,   Naval   Education   and   Training Program  Management  Support  Activity, Pensacola,  Fla.,  1992. Principles  of  Naval  Engineering,  NAVPERS 10788-B1,  Bureau  of  Naval  Personnel,  Navy Department,   Washington,   D.C.,   1970. SUGGESTED  READING Bland,  D.  A.,  A.  E.  Bock,  and  D.  J.  Richardson, Introduction  to  Naval  Engineering,   2d  ed., Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md., 1985. Felger, D. G.,  Engineering  for  the  Officer  of  the Deck, Naval  Institute  Press,  Annapolis,  Md., 1979. THE  TERM    “KNOT”  OR    “NAUTICAL   MILE” IS  USED  WORLD  WIDE  TO DENOTE  A  SHIP’S  SPEED  THROUGH  WATER.  TODAY,  WE  MEASURE  KNOTS WITH  ELECTRONIC  DEVICES,    BUT 200 YEARS AGO SUCH DEVICES WERE UNKNOWN. INGENIOUS  MARINERS  DEVISED  A  SPEED  MEASURING  DEVICE BOTH EASY TO USE AND RELIABLE: THE “    LOG LINE. ” FROM THIS METHOD WE GET THE TERM “KNOT. ” THE LOG LINE WAS A LENGTH OF TWINE MARKED AT 47.33-FOOT INTERVALS  BY  COLORED  KNOTS. AT ONE END WAS FASTENED A LOG CHIP; IT WAS SHAPED LIKE THE SECTOR OF A CIRCLE AND WEIGHT- ED AT THE ROUNDED END WITH LEAD.    WHEN THROWN OVER THE STERN, IT WOULD FLOAT POINTING UPWARD AND WOULD REMAIN RELATIVELY STATIONARY. THE LOG LINE WAS ALLOWED TO RUN FREE OVER THE SIDE FOR 28 SECONDS AND THEN HAULED ON BOARD. KNOTS THAT HAD PASSED  OVER  THE  SIDE  WERE  COUNTED. IN THIS WAY THE SHIP’S SPEED  WAS  MEASURED. 17-12

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