attempts to sortie (go on missions), the enemy
units are destroyed. Submarines and mines are
often used with this tactic.
2. CHOKEPOINT CONTROL is used to pre-
vent the enemy from going through geographical
bottlenecks. The enemy must concentrate forces
when at these points and is, therefore, vulnerable
3. OPEN AREA OPERATIONS are used
when the tactics above do not work or if the
enemy is already underway at sea or in the air.
Search and surveillance systems are used to locate
and track the enemy before attacks.
4. LOCAL ENGAGEMENT is the final
tactic. This tactic involves a concentration of
forces in a limited area. These forces may attack
and destroy any enemy when it enters the range
of their weapons either before or after an attack.
Historically, the Navys radius of action has
been limited to the enemys coastline, plus the
range of the ships guns. With the development
of high-performance aircraft and ballistic missiles,
the Navys range of action now spans continents.
Ships, because of their mobility, are less
accessible targets than shore bases. Furthermore,
as a partial deterrent to the destructive capabilities
of nuclear weapons, the dispersal concept has
been added to fleet doctrine.
Projection of Power Ashore
This functional area involves the impact of
naval forces on land forces. Three types of
actions are used to project power ashore:
AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT, NAVAL BOM-
BARDMENT, and TACTICAL AIR PROJEC-
Although amphibious assault and naval bom-
bardment are probably familiar to you, tactical
air projection may not be. Tactical air projection
is divided into four categories:
1. DEEP INTERDICTIONThis tactic in-
volves carrier-based air attacks outside the battle
area. These attacks are designed to destroy or
cripple the enemys military potential.
2. BATTLEFIELD INTERDICTIONThis
tactic involves carrier-based air attacks on military
targets of immediate importance. These attacks
are used to slow the enemys movement of
supplies and reinforcements.
3. CLOSE AIR SUPPORTThis tactic
provides direct support to front-line ground
troops by specially trained Marine Corps air units.
It usually involves precision attacks on targets just
ahead of the front-line troops.
4. COUNTER AIR/ANTIAIR WARFARE
This tactic is designed to keep the enemy from
using aircraft or missiles to attack our forces or
defend the enemys forces. It involves attacks on
enemy aircraft, missile installations, and air fields.
Naval presence is the use of naval forces for
political objectives without war. Generally, it
consists of PREVENTIVE DEPLOYMENTS and
Preventive deployments are a show of force
during peacetime to indicate the capability of the
Navys forces. Responsive deployments are an
indication of the response of the Navy to a crisis
In either case, the presence of the Navy is a
threat of action. This threat does not have to be
spoken. Hopefully, the mere presence of the Navy
will be enough to cause the problem to disappear.
United States forces can use these deployments
to reassure allies and deter possible aggression
from potential enemies.
All of these tactics are designed to accomplish
the mission of the Navypreparedness to con-
duct prompt and sustained combat operations at
THE SOVIET THREAT
Before a nation can make any strategic plans
for the employment of its forces, it must consider
who or what its threat or opponent might be. It
can then analyze the opponent or threat and make
plans to counter any opposition that arises. For
the United States, the Soviet Union and the
Warsaw Pact nations are considered to be a
SOVIET MILITARY THREAT
The Communist party of the Soviet Union is
concerned with the nature of a possible future
war. The military doctrine of the Soviet Union
is to prepare the country and its armed forces for
conducting such a war. The Soviets view war as
an extension of politics and therefore emphasize
offensive operations. A Soviet victory in either
a conventional or nuclear war would neutralize
the influence of NATO on world politics. It would
also end the political structure of the United States
as we know it today.