and sustained combat operations at sea. Opera-
tions include sea-based aircraft and land-based
naval air components. In effect, these forces seek
out and destroy enemy naval forces and suppress
enemy sea commerce. They gain and maintain
general naval supremacy, control vital sea areas,
and protect vital sea lines of communications.
They also establish and maintain local superiority
in land and air operations and seize and defend
advanced naval bases.
The Navy also provides forces for joint
amphibious operations. It is responsible for train-
ing all forces assigned to these operations in
amphibious warfare as directed by Joint Chiefs
of Staff. Other specific responsibilities assigned
to the Navy are naval reconnaissance, antisub-
marine warfare, protection of shipping, mine-
laying, and controlled minefield operations. In
conjunction with the other services, the Navy
provides forces for the defense of the United
States against air attack.
Because of the complexity of the Navys
function, a massive modernization of Navy ships,
aircraft, and weapons has been undertaken.
Basically, the modernization has taken three
forms: (1) the speedup of research and develop-
ment to develop new weapons; (2) laying up of
old ships to save operating and overhauling costs,
thereby directing this money into new construc-
tion; and (3) the hi-low balanced mix concept.
This hi-low concept is a balance in the purchase
of a few highly effective ships and aircraft, such
as CVNs, SSBNs, and F/A-18 aircraft, with a
concurrent development of new classes of low-cost
ships, such as guided-missile frigates.
The Navy has entered a new phase of scientific
warfareone in which nuclear weapons and
guided missiles are the primary destructive
weapons. Conventional weapons, of course, are
still maintained and being improved. Such
weapons enable the Navy, with its Marine
component, to deploy rapidly and to apply the
force necessary to contain a limited war.
The Navys achievements in the development
of scientific projects continue to lead the world.
These achievements range from earth navigation
and communications satellites to the improvement
of nuclear propulsion. The Navys Polaris missile,
operational in nuclear-powered submarines at sea,
was the first intermediate-range ballistic missile
(IRBM) to be equipped with the solid-propellant
motor. The Poseidon and Trident missiles, which
have extended range and multiple warheads, were
developed following the success of the Polaris
missile. They have since replaced the Polaris.
Other Navy achievements include pioneering
new developments in communications, naviga-
tion, underwater acoustics, oceanography, and a
host of other scientific fields. One particular
achievement is the successful pioneering of the
route from the Pacific to the Atlantic beneath the
North Polar ice cap.
The Navy has divided its mission into four
functional areas: (1) strategic deterrence, (2) sea
control, (3) projection of power ashore, and (4)
Strategic deterrence has three objectives. The
first of these is to deter (prevent or discourage)
an all-out attack on the United States or its allies.
The second objective is to cause any possible
attacker to face an unacceptable risk in the event
of an attack. The final objective is to keep the
United States and its allies politically stable and
secure enough to withstand the threat of attack
How does the Navy accomplish the objectives
of strategic deterrence? First, the Navy maintains
an ASSURED SECOND-STRIKE CAPABIL-
ITY. This means that if an enemy were to launch
an all-out attack, the United States could deliver
massive retaliation (counterattack) even after the
attack. The Navys fleet ballistic missile sub-
marines (nuclear) (SSBNs) are the backbone of
this tactic because of their high probability of
surviving a nuclear attack. Second, the tactic of
CONTROLLED RESPONSE is used. This means
that the Navy will respond to a partial attack only
to the degree required. This is hoped to prevent
a general nuclear war. The SSBN fleet is also the
backbone of this tactic.
Our nations definition of sea control is
denying the use of the sea to our enemy and
assuring the use of the sea to the United States
and its allies. In todays world, sea control can
be exercised only over limited areas of the sea.
Although sea control is accomplished by four
tactics, many weapons and weapons systems can
be used with these tactics. The correct tactic and
weapons systems to be used depends on the situa-
tion. The four tactics used to accomplish sea
control are as follows:
1. SORTIE CONTROL is used to keep an
enemy within ports and bases. As the enemy