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FAX  systems  are  not  intended  as  replacements for   other   standard   communications   methods. They are a useful supplemental system for rapid communications. Fleet  Broadcasts Radio  traffic  is  sent  to  the  fleet  by  two methods: broadcast and receipt. The first is a “do not   answer”  method;  the  second,  as  its  name implies,  requires  a  receipt  from  addressees  for each message. The broadcast method allows the fleet  to  preserve  radio  silence,  which  is  a great advantage from the standpoint of security. Civilian  and  naval  broadcasts  have  some similarity. Commercial stations in the broadcast band transmit programs to radio receivers in the homes in their communities. Likewise, Navy com- munications stations broadcast messages to fleet units  in  their  particular  geographic  areas.  The term  broadcast,  in  fact,  originated  in  naval communications. The  resemblance  between  Navy  commercial stations  ceases  here,  however.  Information broadcast  by  naval  communications  stations  is contained in chronologically numbered messages assigned  to  the  ships.  Fleet  units  copy  the messages and check the numbers to ensure they have a complete file of all messages they should have received. Automated systems now key fleet broadcasts. Messages   are   broadcast   in   their   order   of precedence.  If  the  automated  system  receives  a higher-precedence message while transmitting a lower-precedence  message,  it  may  interrupt  the latter  to  transmit  the  higher-precedence  message. All ships copy all messages addressed to them that  appear  on  the  broadcast  schedule  they  are guarding. Fleet broadcasts use satellites as their primary transmission   media,   High-frequency   (hf)   radio transmission provides broadcast services to ships that are unable to copy the satellite systems. Satellite Communications A   satellite   communications   (SATCOM) system is one that uses earth-orbiting vehicles or satellites  to  relay  radio  transmissions  between earth terminals. A typical operational link involves a satellite and  two  earth  terminals.  One  station  transmits  to the  satellite  on  a  frequency  called  the  up-link frequency.   The   satellite   amplifies   the   signal, translates it to the down-link frequency, and then transmits  it  back  to  earth  where  the  signal  is picked  up  by  the  receiving  terminal. The  Commander,  Naval  Telecommunications Command   (COMNAVTELCOM),   is   designated the  communications  manager  for  Navy-assigned satellite  systems.    The   responsibilities   of   the communications  manager  include  operating  the earth  terminals  and  publishing  Satellite   Com- munications  Operating  Procedures   (NTP-2). Commander,  Naval  Space  Command  (COM- NAVSPACECOM),  is  the  operational  manager for Navy satellites. The operational manager plans the   location   of   spacecraft   and   fixed   earth terminals and allocates satellite capacity, power, bandwidth,  and  operating  frequencies. The  Navy  uses  two  primary  SATCOM systems: Long-haul   (long-distance)   communications takes place via the defense satellite communica- tions  system  (DSCS),  which  is  managed  by  the Defense   Communications   Agency   (DCA).   This high-capacity  global  system  uses  satellites  equally spaced around the world operating on superhigh frequencies  (shf).  Ships  and  stations  located anywhere  on  the  earth  from  70  degrees  north latitude to 70 degrees south latitude have access to  one  of  these  satellites. •  The   fleet   satellite   communications (FLTSATCOM) system operates at ultrahigh fre- quency  (uhf),  making  possible  the  use  of  relatively low-cost terminals and simple antennas. Leased satellites  (LEASAT)  are  part  of  this  system. •  FLTSATCOM   provides   the   primary means  of  Navy  tactical  satellite  ship-shore-ship communications  over  the  officer  in  tactical  com- mand information exchange subsystem (OTCIXS) and   the   tactical   data   exchange   subsystem (TADIXS). The common user digital information exchange  system  (CUDIXS)  and  the  naval modular   automated   communications   system (NAVMACS)  combine  to  form  a  general-service message  traffic  network. 12-19

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