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Judge Advocate General's Corps -Continued
134.50 Figure 13-2.-On the naval base at Norfolk, Virginia, are the chapels of three faiths under one roof. To the left is the Protestant chapel; to the right, the Catholic chapel; and connecting the two, the Jewish chapel. proven   value   of   the   Solicitor’s   function   moved Secretary Welles to request legislative ratification of the new legal office. By the act of 2 March 1865, Congress  established  the  Office  of  Solicitor  and Naval Judge Advocate. The  act  of  Congress  on  8  June  1880  estab- lished the Office of the Judge Advocate General of the  Navy  as  we  know  it  today.  This  legislation placed upon the Judge Advocate General the duty to    “receive,    revise,    and    have    recorded    the proceedings of all courts-martial, courts of inquiry, and  boards  for  the   examination   of   officers   for retirement  and  promotion  in  the  naval  service, and   to   perform    such    other    duties    as    have heretofore  been  performed  by  the  Solicitor  and Naval    Judge    Advocate    General.”    The    Judge Advocate  General  was  given  cognizance  over  all legal matters, of whatever kind, that  affected  the interest of the Navy. Before   World   War   II,   Navy   lawyers   were usually   line   officers   with   legal   training.   Their tours  of  legal  duty,  usually  in  the  Office  of  the Judge Advocate General, alternated with tours of line  duty  at  sea.  During  the  war,  many  lawyers served in both line and legal functions throughout the world. The  idea  of  organizing  the  Navy’s  uniformed lawyers   into   a   distinctive   professional   group performing     only     legal     functions     was     first considered  a  number  of  years  ago.  In  1945  the Secretary   of   the   Navy   convened   the   McGuire Committee,  chaired  by  Matthew  F.  McGuire,  a prominent     civilian     lawyer.     The     committee examined   court-martial   procedures   under   the Articles  for  the  Government  of  the  Navy.  The committee’s    November    1945    report    to    the Secretary   formally   recommended   the   establish- ment  of   a   Judge   Advocate   General’s   Corps   in which officers would perform legal duties only. The   recommendation   of   the   McGuire   Com- mittee  prompted  Secretary  of  the  Navy  James  V. Forrestal  to  appoint  a  board  to  look  further  into the  question.  Headed  by  Arthur  A.  Ballantine  of the New York Bar, the board finished its report in April 1946. The report concluded that World War II had  proven  beyond   all  question    the    need for  a    large    number    of    lawyers      to      perform legal  duties  on  a  continuous  basis.  However,  it 13-7

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