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Joint Chief of Staff (JCS)
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Department of the Army
various military departments work together in this joint   effort. Under the National Security Act, each military department and service must coordinate with the others.  Each  is  responsible  for  organizing, training, equipping, and providing forces to fulfill certain   specific   combat   functions   and   for administering  and  supporting  these  forces. Our  country  must  have  the  full  use  and exploration  of  the  weapons,  techniques,  and capabilities  of  each  department  and  service  to attain  its  national  security  objectives.  Unified commands  and  specified  commands  provide  us with the ability to combine our forces effectively. UNIFIED   COMMANDS A  unified  command  has  a  broad  continuing mission  and  is  composed  of  significant  com- ponents  of  two  or  more  services  under  a  single commander.  A  situation  in  which  either  or  both of the following criteria apply requires a unified command: 1.  A  broad  continuing  mission  exists  that requires  significant  forces  of  two  or  more services  and  a  single  strategic  direction. 2.  Any  combination  of  the  following  situa- tions exists when significant forces of two or  more  services  are  involved: a. A large-scale operation requires positive control  and  tactical  execution  by  a  large and  complex  force b. A large geographic area requires single responsibility for effective coordination of   operations c.  Limited  logistic  resources  require  a single  point  of  command The unified commands include the following: U.S.   European   Command   (USEUCOM) U.S.   Southern   Command (USSOUTHCOM) U.S.  Pacific  Command  (USPACOM) U.S.  Atlantic  Command  (USLANTCOM) U.S.   Space   Command   (USSPACECOM) U.S.   Transportation   Command (USTRANSCOM) U.S.  Special  Operations  Command (USSOCOM) U.S.  Central  Command  (USCENTCOM) The   authority   (the   President,   Secretary   of Defense,  etc.)  establishing  a  unified  command appoints  a  unified  commander.  This  authority also determines the unified command’s structure and   assigns   its   forces,   missions,   and   general geographic  area  of  responsibility. The commander of a unified command has a joint  staff  with  members  in  key  positions  from each  service  having  component  forces  under  the unified  command.  The  joint  staff  requires  a balance   in   the   composition   of   the   forces   and character of the operations. This balance ensures an  understanding  by  the  commander  of  the tactics,   techniques,   capabilities,   needs,   and limitations  of  each  component  force. Each   component   of   a   unified   command   is normally  commanded  directly  by  an  officer  of that  component.  Operational  command  by  a unified  commander  is  usually  exercised  through the  service  component  commanders  or  through the  commanders  of  subordinate  unified  com- mands.   (A   unified   commander   may   establish subordinate   unified   commands.)   In   exercising operational   command,   a   unified   commander regards   the   knowledge   and   responsibilities   of assigned  service  component  commanders. The  responsibilities  of  the  commander  of  a unified  command  include  the  following: Maintaining the security of the command and   protecting   the   United   States,   its possessions, and its bases against attack or a  hostile  outbreak Carrying  out  assigned  missions,  tasks,  and responsibilities Assigning tasks to and directing coordina- tion   among   subordinate   commands   to ensure  unity  of  effort  in  the  accomplish- ment  of  assigned  mission(s) SPECIFIED  COMMANDS A  specified  command  is  a  command  with  a broad  continuing  mission.  It  is  normally  composed of  forces  from  only  one  service  but  may  include units  and  staff  representation  from  other  services. The   authority   that   establishes   a   specified command appoints the specified commander and the  force  structure.  This  authority  also  assigns  the missions  and  defines  the  commander’s  general geographic  area  of  responsibility. Units of other services assigned to a specified command   normally   are   told   the   purpose   and 11-7

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