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Page Title: Care of Leather
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Using  Metal  Grommets
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Summary - 14067_76
eyelet down over the spur. Do not pound too hard on the punch because that causes the grommet to cut through the canvas and later it may pull out. The eyelet and ring type of grommet is especially for awnings and sails. Properly used, this is the best of all types. The ring part is sewn to the canvas the same as the handmade grommet. Then the eyelet is placed in the ring and set with the punch and die. LEATHER LEARNING  OBJECTIVES:  Define  leather: Explain the use and care of leather. Hides and skins, being of animal origin, vary in area, thickness, and weight. Subsequent tanning and finishing  processes  further  alter  these  features.  The following information concerning the areas, thickness, and weights is, therefore, only approximate. The types of leather include rigging, harness, shoe, chamois, kid, lacing, belting, and various artificial leathers. Of these, the three you are most likely to need are  rigging,  belting,  and  artificial  leathers. Rigging leather is designated by weight as light, medium, or heavy, ranging from 6 ounces per square foot to 10 ounces per square foot. It is issued by the pound. Belting is either round or flat and is issued in any desired length by the linear foot. Round belting comes in two widths, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch. Width is used instead of diameter because, despite the name, it is oval rather than round. Flat belting may be either single- or double-ply.  Single-ply  belting  is  in  1-  to  6-inch  widths; double-ply,  2-  to  12-inch  widths. The most common types of artificial leathers are used for upholstery and are issued by the square foot. CARE  OF  LEATHER Leather  exposed  to  the  elements  should  be  kept well oiled or waxed. Any oil that does not contain harsh chemicals  is  suitable,  but  the  best  is  neat's-foot  oil. Leather in such places as on lifelines may be kept well-preserved by the application of paste wax. Saddle soap, an excellent preservative and cleaner, can be used on holsters, and on shoes, jackets, and other leather wearing apparel. If leather becomes badly soiled and stained, wash it with a mild soap and water solution, rinse well, and dry in a spot away from intense heat. After it is dry, apply saddle soap or neat's-foot oil to replace the natural oils of the leather. Leather  is  especially  subject  to  mildew  and  rotting. It is also highly susceptible to accidental cutting, gouging, and abrading. Excessive heat causes it to shrink considerably, with consequent rending and cracking. Acids, corrosives, or their fumes have a disastrous  effect  upon  leather. The foregoing conditions should be borne in mind when stowing leather. Rolls must have top stowage to prevent crushing. Stowage must be well clear of any liquids  or  greases  that  might  stain.  To  prevent  sticking, paper should be placed between hides stowed one on top of the other. Original moistureproof wrappers should be left on as long as possible to prevent mildew. Stowage should always be in a dry, well-ventilated compartment. SEWING  LEATHER On leather, the line along which the stitches are to run on each edge should be grooved so as to countersink the stitches below the surface. When joining two pieces of leather by sewing by hand, first draw a line parallel and close to the edge first, then make your groove with a grooving tool (a dull knife will do). Use a block of wood for a straightedge. Next, punch holes along the grooves  for  the  stitches. The  shoemaker's  or  cobbler's  stitch  is  shown  in figure 3-40. A variation of this stitch is to cut the leather carefully  so  that  the  edges  abut.  Angle  the  grooves toward the edges of the leather and sew through the Figure 3-40.–Shoemaker's stitch. 3-29

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