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Yard-and- Stav Rig -Continued
Seaman - Military manual for the Seaman rate
Hand Signal
method of cargo handling. Two booms are used. One boom plumbs the hatch, and it is called the hatch boom. The other boom is called the yard boom, and it is rigged over the side so that it plumbs the dock or pier. Booms are spotted in working position by hauling on the guys. The cargo whips coming from the hatch and the yard winches are run through heel and head blocks and are shackled to the same cargo hook. The outboard guys and preventers are balanced in proportion to the load and in the working position of the boom. Cargo whips are shackled to the cargo hook, and a load is picked. The load is raised until the angle formed by the whips is about 120 degrees. The outboard guys and preventers are equalized by easing off the guy tackles.  As  outboard  guys  and  preventers  are  being equalized,  all  slack  is  taken  in  on  the  inboard  or midships guys. It is a good practice, when originally spotting the booms, to swing them slightly wider than desired. When guys and preventers are equalized, the booms  will  move  inboard  into  position. The winch controls for the yard and stay are usually located so that one person can operate both winches and have an unrestricted view of the hold. When you are moving a load from the hold to the pier, the yard whip is kept slack as the hatch whip hoists the load from the hold and clear of the hatch coaming. Then, when you heave around on the yard whip and pay out on the hatch whip, the load is moved across the deck and over the side. When the load is plumbed under the yard boom, the hatch whip is slacked off and the yard whip lowers the load to the pier. Because   topping   and   lowering   booms   are dangerous  evolutions,  safety  is  always  emphasized. Personnel are cautioned to stay away from under the booms while handling operations are in progress. The deck should be kept as clear as possible of obstructions. A  clean  deck  provides  the  safest  working  condition. As  a  Seaman,  you  should  always  watch  for discrepancies while a load is being moved, and keep every part of the rig under constant observation. No unnecessary  personnel  should  be  in  the  area.  Those involved  with  the  operation  must  stay  alert. CARGO  WINCHES Winches designed for handling cargo consist of a bedplate and side frames upon which are mounted a horizontal drum shaft, drum and/or gypsy head(s), reduction gearing, and usually the motor that drives the winch. Figure 4-22 illustrates the components of a typical winch. Drum winches are those with drums on which the rope is wound for raising, lowering, or pulling the loads. Gypsy winches have one or two horizontally mounted gypsy heads around which turns of line can be taken. Combination winches are drum winches with shafts extended to take gypsy heads on either side or on both sides. Preceding every winch operation, operators should review all general operating and safety instructions, among which are the following: 1. Always inspect the area around the winch, and make sure there is a dry, safe place for the winch operator  to  stand. 2. Inspect the rigging, making certain that the standing rigging is taut and that the running rigging is not fouled. 3. Inspect the equipment, making sure the clutch levers are locked in place. Although  the  engineering  department  is  responsible for maintaining winches, the winch operator and the petty officer in charge must make certain that the required  maintenance  is  actually  performed. Coordination is essential for good winch operation. After sufficient practice, winch operators should be able to pick a draft from the hold and deposit it on the pier in one  smooth,  constant  motion.  However,  during  the early stage of training, the draft should be handled with three  distinct  movements:  hoisting,  moving,  and lowering. In hoisting, one winch supports the entire load and the other maintains slack. When the draft is clear of the rail or coaming, it is carried across the deck by both winches. This is called moving. When a draft is in position to be lowered, the other winch supports the entire load and the first whip is slacked. It is vital that the right amount of slack be left in the nonworking whip during the hoisting and lowering phases of the load's cycle. If the whip is kept too tight, the draft will strike against the side of the ship or the coaming of the hatch. If the whip is allowed excess slack, loose turns will pile up on the drum of the winch, and these must be rewound before  operations  are  resumed. When cargo is being hoisted or lowered, swinging should be avoided if possible. A wildly swinging draft often results in damaged cargo and endangers the lives of personnel working in the hold, on deck, or on the pier. Swinging can usually be prevented in the hold or on the pier by dragging or touching the draft until it is directly under  the  head  of  the  boom  before  hoisting. Occasionally, a draft will start to swing athwartships while being carried across the deck This swinging must be stopped before the load can be landed. It can be done easily with a little practice. When moving outboard, wait 4-24

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