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Magnetic Compass Error
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Ships Steering and Speed Control Equipment
GYROCOMPASS  REPEATERS  AND PELORUS Gyro repeaters mounted on the bridge wings are located  in  stands  somewhat  similar  to  the  binnacle. These  instruments  display  directional  information  on the basis of electrical signals received from the ship's master   gyrocompass. Gyro repeaters on the bridge wings are used in taking bearings on objects outside the ship. Movable sighting vanes on the face of the gyro repeaters are aimed at the object in the same manner in which rifle sights are lined up. True bearings are read directly by observing the degree on the compass card with which the crossbar of the sighting vane lines up. Relative bearings may be read from an outer dumb compass ring on  the  repeater  stand. True bearing is the direction of an object from the observer, measured clockwise from true north. Compass bearing is the direction of an object as indicated  by  the  magnetic  compass.  It  must  be converted into true hearing by applying the corrections for  variation  and  deviation. Relative bearing is the direction of an object from the observer, measured clockwise from the ship's heading as indicated by the lubber's line in the binnacle Figure 2-5.— True and relative bearings. or the gyro repeater. When a bearing is recorded, it is assumed to be a true bearing unless it is followed by the capital letter R, which would mean that the bearing is relative. Figure 2-5 shows true and relative bearings of a lighthouse from a ship. As you learned in  Basic Military Requirements, lookouts report objects they see in relative bearings by degrees (usually to the nearest 10 degrees) based on the fore-and-aft line of the ship, starting with dead ahead as 000°, on the starboard beam as 090°, dead astern as 180°, on the port beam as 270°, and through to dead ahead as 000°. Another look at the compass card in figure 2-1 will show you the positions of the relative bearings  (in  10-degree  increments)  normally  used  by lookouts. Relative bearings by points of the compass are sometimes  used  in  certain  problems  connected  with fixing position in piloting. Each point of the compass is equivalent to 011 1/4°, for a total of 32 points, as opposed to the 36 relative reporting positions. Table 2-1 is  included  for  familiarization  purposes. Without   the   need   of   your   knowing   exact terminology, positions go on thusly around the ship in the 1-2-3-4-3-2-1 pattern, punctuated by “dead astern” and “on the port beam” to “dead ahead.” The relative degree indications continue around the ship in 011 1/4° steps,  terminating  at  000°. Table 2-1— Relative Bearings by Points and Degrees COMPASS POINTS DEGREES Dead  Ahead 000 1 point on starboard bow 011 1/4 2 points on starboard bow 022 1/2 3 points on starboard bow 033 3/4 4 points (broad) on starboard bow 045 3 points forward of starboard beam 056 1/4 2 points forward of starboard beam 067 1/2 1 point forward of starboard beam 078 3/4 On  the  starboard  beam 090 2-4

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