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Distinguishing   Marks
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Maritime Buoyage System, International Bouyage, Region A
and port lateral marks. Yellow lights are for special marks, and white lights are used for other types of marks, which will be discussed later in this chapter. PHASE CHARACTERISTICS.— Lights, when fitted,   may   have   any   of   the   following   phase characteristics  (or  frequency  of  duration):  quick flashing,  flashing,  long  flashing,  or  group  flashing. Lateral  Marks Lateral marks are generally used for well-defined channels. They indicate the route to be followed and are used in conjunction with a “conventional direction of buoyage.”   This direction is defined in one of two ways: Local direction of buoyage—the direction taken by the mariner when approaching a harbor, river estuary, or other waterway from seaward. General direction of buoyage—in other areas, a direction  determined  by  the  buoyage  authorities, following  a  clockwise  direction  around  continental landmasses,  given  in  Sailing  Directions,  and,  if necessary,  indicated  on  charts  by  a  symbol. The numbering or lettering of buoys is an optional feature. In the United States, fairway and channel buoys are always numbered odd to port and even to starboard, approaching  from  seaward.  Table  5-3  shows  the  aids used by the United States. REGION A.— As shown in figure 5-19, Inter- national Buoyage Region A covers Europe and Asia with the exception of Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Republic of the Philippines. The major rule to remember in this region is red to port when returning from seaward. The lateral marks (buoys) used in Region A are as follows: Port-hand marks (fig. 5-21) Color: Red Shape (buoys): Can, pillar, or spar Topmark (when required): Single red can Light  (when  fitted): Color:  Red Phase  Characteristics:  Any  other  than  Composite Group Flashing (2 + 1) Starboard-hand marks (fig. 5-22) Color: Green Shape (buoys): Nun, pillar, or spar C69.214 Figure  5-21.–IALA  Maritime  Buoyage  System,  International Buoyage Region A port-hand marks (buoys). Topmark (when required): Single green cone, point  upward Light  (when  fitted): Color: Green Phase  Characteristics:  Any  other  than  Composite Group Flashing (2 + 1) When the ship is proceeding in the conventional direction of buoyage, a preferred channel may be indicated by a modified port or starboard lateral mark at the point where a channel divides. Preferred  channel  to  port  (fig.  5-23) Color:  Green  with  one  broad  red  horizontal  band Shape (buoys): Nun, pillar, or spar Topmark (when required): Single green cone, point  upward Light  (when  fitted): Color:  Green Phase  Characteristics:  Composite  Group  Flashing (2 + 1) 5-28

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