can ruin both the taste and the appearance of food as well
as increase the risks of food-borne disease.
HOT FOODS. The holding temperature of hot
foods held on a serving line should be maintained
between 180°F and 200°F.
COLD FOODS. Keep cold foods such as salads,
potato salad combinations, and ham plates cold by
setting them on ice or on refrigerated salad bar units
maintained between 34°F and 40°F.
BEVERAGES. Beverages should be served hot
or cold as applicable. As with food, the quality depends
on proper preparation, holding, and dispensing.
When leftovers or warm foods are chilled, care must
be taken to ensure prompt and thorough chilling (40°F
or below) to the center of the food mass. Foods that are
to be refrigerated should be placed in shallow pans to a
depth of not more than 3 inches and must be covered
with lids or waxed paper. Do not put leftovers in large,
deep pans as chilling may take so long to get to the center
of the food mass that sufficient time is allowed for the
growth of harmful bacteria and development of toxins.
Guard against any procedure that might delay cooling.
Place foods to be chilled in the chill box immediately.
Leftover food must not be saved for more than 36 hours.
Freezing of leftovers is prohibited. Foods composed of
ingredients that have been peeled, sliced, or diced by
hand after cooking must never be used as leftovers since
the 4-hour limit between temperatures of 40°F and
140°F is usually taken up in preparing, chilling, and
serving the food. To prevent miscalculations in the
length of time leftovers have been stored, all leftovers
must be labeled with the date and time of preparation.
Frozen foods should be thawed in the refrigerator.
Freezing breaks down tissue and, therefore, foods can
be invaded by germs more rapidly. Once foods are
frozen and then thawed, they must not be refrozen. If
not eaten, they should be stored under 40°F.
Milk and Milk Products
Milk and milk products and other protein foods are
frequent offenders in transmitting infectious diseases to
man because of their rapid rate of perishability. Strict
surveillance of all handling procedures from cow to man
is necessary to prevent contamination and possible
When procured by Navy and Marine Corps
activities, milk and milk products must conform in all
respects to either federal or military specifications. The
perishability of such products is a most important factor,
thus strict compliance with all sanitary requirements is
Delivery inspections of dairy products are normally
conducted by personnel attached to the receiving
activities. These inspectors must make sure milk and
milk products are from approved sources and delivered
in containers that are in good condition and properly
sealed. They must make sure the temperature of the
product on delivery is 40°F or less or follows the current
Defense Personnel Support Center (DPSC) contract.
Of prime importance to medical and foodservice
personnel is the maintenance of recommended
temperatures in storing (40°F or less), dispensing
(32°F-40°F), and enforcing approved sanitary methods
in the handling of such products.
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
Fresh fruits and vegetables should be washed
thoroughly under running water to remove any particles
of dirt or to remove poisonous insect sprays. Green
vegetables of uncertain origin should be suspected of
being contaminated with pathogenic organisms. They
should be chemically sanitized by immersion for at least
15 minutes in a 100-ppm (parts per million) available
chlorine solution, or 30 minutes in a 50-ppm available
chlorine solution, or other approved method. Then they
should be thoroughly rinsed with potable water before
they are cooked or served. Head items such as lettuce,
cabbage, or celery must be broken apart before they are
that appear abnormal in odor or
never be eaten or even tasted, but
should be discarded. When you are inspecting canned
meats, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruit, and juices, the
following factors should be considered.
CAN LABELS. Check to make sure contents and
processing date are stamped on the end of the container
or on the label.
CAN EXTERIOR. The exterior of the can
should be examined for general appearance, dents,
swelling, rust, and pinholes. Cans having severe dents
that cross either the side or end seams or that crinkle the
metal to a point similar to those depicted in figures 1-3,