except fat. In bread production, nonfat dry milk style A
should be used, as this milk is designed specifically for
achieving volume, flavor, and crust characteristics
desirable in yeast breads. Dry milk can be added by
mixing or sifting the milk and flour together, or it can
be reconstituted with part of the water in the bread recipe
and added to the dough. In either event, it is important
that there are no lumps of milk powder in the dough.
The amount of milk used in the dough can be as high
as 6-percent nonfat dry milk based on the weight of the
flour. The use of more than 6-percent dry milk in the
bread dough is detrimental to fermentation. Milk
improves the texture, flavor, and keeping quality of
EGGS. Eggs are not used in making white bread
but are used in making sweet doughs, cakes, and
cookies. In baked products, eggs supply a high protein,
mineral, and vitamin content. The yokes add color, the
whites help bind other ingredients, and both combine to
add flavor and moisture to the bread.
Fresh eggs should be removed from the refrigerator
and warmed to room temperature before they are used
in dough. Frozen eggs should be completely defrosted
before they are added to the dough and should be well
mixed. Dehydrated egg mix may be sifted with the dry
ingredients in some baked products containing a high
percentage of dry ingredients; the water needed to
reconstitute eggs should be added to the required liquid.
Reconstituted eggs should be used within 1 hour after
they are reconstituted or returned to the refrigerator until
they are to be used. Do not hold them overnight.
Leavening agents are gases that cause the dough to
rise. The gases are produced by chemical action or
introduced by the mixing process, which forces air into
the dough. The common types of leavening agents are
steam, air, and carbon dioxide gas. These agents are
produced by yeast or bating soda or baking powder.
AIR. Air is introduced into the dough by blending
(creaming) fat and sugar together, by sifting flour, or by
folding in beaten egg whites that already contain air.
Steam is used to leaven eclairs and cream puffs.
YEAST. Yeast is a microscopic, one-celled plant
that, when conditions are favorable, will multiply by
budding or by the division of a cell into two cells. In
this process of reproduction, the yeast plant uses
available food (sugars) to produce carbon dioxide gas
and alcohol. This is known as fermentation.
ACTIVE DRY YEAST. Active dry yeast should
be suspended in about seven times its weight of water
at 105°F to 110°F for 5 minutes before it is used. The
proper temperature of the water is important, as water
that is too cold or too hot will harm the yeast. Make sure
the temperature of the water does not exceed 110°F.
Active dry yeast does not require refrigeration, but
should be stored in a dry and reasonably cool place.
When properly stored, dry yeast will keep for many
Yeast foods, known as dough conditioners, have
other more important functions than to supply food for
yeast. Their major purposes are to condition the water
and to assist in the proper fermentation of the dough.
Yeast foods contain three types of functional
Ammonium salts to supply yeast with a supply
of nitrogen for growth
Calcium salts to produce the correct amount of
hardness in the dough water and to firm the
An oxidizing agent to give a firmer, less sticky
addition, yeast foods contain starch and salt to
add bulk and make weighing easier. The use of yeast
foods is often determined by the strength of the flour and
the fermentation period desired. Not all flours require
yeast food. When the flour requires such material, its
addition produces bread of larger volume, better grain
and texture, and improved loaf appearance. Too much
will produce inferior bread with low volume and coarse
BAKING SODA. Baking soda acts as a
leavening agent only when there is an acid present.
Some of these acids are sour milk or buttermilk,
molasses, brown sugar, honey, corn syrup, maple syrup,
lemon juice, and vinegar. These are used for different
types of quick bread. Only a limited quantity of the acid
ingredients can be used for leavening purposes due to
the pronounced flavor and heavy texture that baking
soda and molasses or syrup give to the products. It is
also difficult to determine beforehand the amount of gas
that these mixtures will produce. Thus, it is difficult to
obtain standard results.
BAKING POWDER. Baking powder is a
leavening agent that contains baking soda, a large
amount of starch, and a material that forms an acid when
it is mixed with water, thus producing a gas. There are
several types of baking powder. The Navy uses a