escape rapidly if the mixed batter is allowed to stand.
Scale each muffin carefully, filling each muffin cup
two-thirds full. Too much batter in muffin pans causes
muffins to be coarse. A well-prepared muffin has a
uniform texture, even grain, and a well-rounded but
uniform top crust. A muffin mix is available. Prepare
it according to instructions on the container.
Baking Powder Biscuits
Baking powder biscuits are prepared from flour,
liquid, shortening, salt, and a leavening agent. When
mixing, the shortening should be cut in thoroughly until
the mixture resembles cornmeal.
The proportion of liquid to dry ingredients is
extremely important in the production of biscuit dough.
The dough should be soft, not dry or stiff, and slightly
sticky. Gradually add water until dough is formed. The
condition of the flour, moisture in the bake shop, and the
speed of mixing can alter the amount of liquid used.
When to stop adding liquid will be recognized as
experience is gained in the production of biscuits.
BISCUIT MIX. Biscuit mix is also used and
contains all the ingredients except water. The leavening
agent is packaged separately from the other ingredients.
It should be thoroughly blended with the mix before
blending in the required water. Follow directions for
baking listed on the container.
BISCUIT VARIATIONS. Biscuit variations
may be prepared by rolling the dough in a rectangular
shape, spreading the dough with butter, and adding
brown sugar and nuts or a granulated sugar-
cinnamon-raisin filling. The biscuit dough is rolled up
like a jelly roll and the biscuits are then sliced. Cheddar
or American cheese that has been grated maybe added
to the dry ingredients to make cheese biscuits.
Cutting and Panning
Biscuit cutters used are 2 1/2 inches in diameter.
Dip cutters in flour and tap lightly to remove the excess
flour before cutting out the biscuits. Cut the biscuits so
that rounds do not overlap.
Biscuit dough also may be patted on baking sheets
and cut with a sharp knife in squares to speed up
production and to save rerolling of dough. If little space
is left between each biscuit on the pan, less crust is
formed. If more crust is wanted, place biscuits farther
apart. Baking powder biscuits should be baked at the
temperature listed in the AFRS. They are best when
served piping hot.
The doughnut formula is basically a sweet dough;
however, leavening and eggs are decreased and a
combination of bread and general-purpose flours is
used. A blend of general-purpose and bread flours
produces a more tender texture and a shorter
fermentation time than if all bread flour is used.
Doughnut formulas contain different percentages of
sugar, shortening, and eggs; the greater amount used, the
richer the dough. However, variations in richness for
yeast-raised doughnuts do not extend over as wide a
possible range as with cake doughnut formulas that
tolerate larger quantities of sugar and eggs.
The sugar content in yeast-raised doughnuts
controls, to some extent, the amount of browning and
fat absorption during frying.
The quality of ingredients is just as important in
doughnut production as it is in other yeast-raised items.
Extreme care in mixing, fermentation, and makeup is
essential to high-quality doughnut production.
Mixing temperature should be controlled so that
the dough leaves the mixer at 78°F to 82°F. The
temperature of ingredients when mixed has a definite
effect on the amount of fat absorbed during frying.
Mixing time should be limited to 10 minutes or until the
dough is smooth and elastic.
Fermentation and Makeup
Mixed doughs should be immediately divided into
uniform pieces, the size of which depends on the weight
of the entire batch being made up. Follow recipe
instructions for rolling and cutting, as thickness of
dough and uniformity of doughnut size are extremely
important to proper frying. If there are cracks in the
dough, or if it is stretched unnecessarily, the dough will
tend to absorb a greater amount of fat during frying.
CUTTING. Doughnut cutters should be used
carefully to prevent overlapping the cuts and wasting the
dough. Reworked and rerolled dough can be used, but
will not give cut doughnuts a smooth surface or an even
Doughnuts may be cut into various shapes. Other
than the characteristic round shape without centers,
there are long johns, crullers, and beignets.