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Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
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Beverages - 14164_128
PREPARATION  AND  SERVICE  TIPS.—  If lumps should occur when you are making gravy, strain the gravy or whip vigorously with a wire whip. If gravy is not to be served immediately, cover the pan and keep it hot; or it may be refrigerated and reheated when ready to  use.  Gravy  should  be  handled  carefully  to  avoid contamination and food-borne illness. Store it in a chill space  and  never  hold  gravy  longer  than  4  cumulative hours  at  temperatures  between  40°F  and  140°F. Dressings Dressings  are  usually  served  as  the  starch  addition of a lunch or dinner meal when the entreé consists of a poultry product such as turkey. The terms  dressing  and stuffing  are  often  used interchangeably, but they both actually refer to dressing. If the dressing is cooked inside the poultty, it is referred to as stuffing. Excellent dressings can be prepared that are not cooked inside the birds. Pan-baked dressing requires more moisture and is less firm than stuffing, but is easier to prepare and easier to serve. Good dressing is light and moist, not heavy and pasty. Poultry  stuffed  with  dressing  is  not  recommended for large-scale food operations such as GMs because it increases  cooking  time,  imposes  a  larger  workload  on foodservice  personnel,  and  it  does  not  improve  or enhance  the  flavor  of  the  meat.  Most  importantly, stuffing paltry is a sanitation risk and increases the possibility  of  food-borne  illness. The AFRS includes the basic bread dressing recipe and its many variations that may be served with either chicken or turkey. CEREALS, PASTA, AND RICE Cereals, pasta, and rice are all grain products that are used as the starch portion of a meal. Cereals Cereals are foods made from grains of wheat, oats, corn, rice, rye, and barley. Cereals are often referred to as breakfast foods, but are not limited to the breakfast meal. Cereals can be used in many types of recipes. The types   include   instant,   quick-cooking,   and   cold ready-to-eat   cereals. Instant cereals do not require further cooking. They are simply mixed with boiling water before serving. Quick-cooking cereals require a shorter cooking time than regular cereals.    To prevent quick-cooking cereals  from  forming  lumps,  they  should  be  stirred slowly into rapidly boiling water. Quick-cooking farina is mixed with cold water and then added to boiling water. These cereals should be stirred constantly until they boil. After they begin to boil, reduce to a simmer and stir them occasionally.  Overstirring  and  overcooking  will  cause cereal to be sticky and gummy. Ready-to-eat cold cereals require no cooking and are served with cold milk and sugar. No added sugar is needed for the coated or frosted cereals. For variety, sliced  peaches,  strawberries,  prunes,  or  bananas  maybe added. Pastas Pastas  (macaroni,  spaghetti,  vermicelli,  and noodles) are produced from semolina durum wheat flour, farina, or hard wheat flour (other than durum wheat flour) and water. Egg noodles also contain eggs. The  mixtures  are  rolled,  shaped,  and  dried  in  various forms.  The  only  difference  between  vermicelli  and spaghetti is that the individual strands of vermicelli are finer  and  require  less  cooking.  They  may  be  used interchangeably  in  recipes  specifying  spaghetti  or vermicelli. Pastas  should  be  added  to  vigorously  boiling,  salted water and stirred so that they will not stick together or to the bottom of the kettle. A small amount of salad oil is added to the water to help to prevent sticking. Pastas should be drained as soon as they have finished cooking. If pastas are overcooked, they become soft and gummy. Rice and Barley The  rice  products  used  in  the  military  feeding programs are parboiled, long-grain, and medium-grain rice.  They  need  not  be  washed  before  cooking.  Cooked long-grain rice should appear light textured and the individual grains should stand apart. Medium-grain rice, when  cooked,  will  clump  together.  This  type  of  rice  is preferred  in  Oriental  dishes.  Directions  for  proper cooking  by  steaming,  simmering,  and  baking  are contained in the AFRS. Rice may be served plain, as a potato substitute, combined with other ingredients in a main  dish,  added  to  salads,  or  topped  with  highly seasoned  sauce.  For  variety,  combine  rice  with  herbs, spices, chopped onions, or nuts. Rice pudding can be served  for  dessert. Barley  is  a  grain  used  principally  as  a  soup ingredient. 5-25

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