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CREAM OR WHITE SAUCE.—  Cream  or  white sauces are made with butter or margarine, flour, and milk and have many variations. These sauces must be cooked over low heat. They require constant stirring to avoid  scorching.  The  sauce  is  cooked  until  it  coats  the back of the spoon. Thin and medium white sauces are used to bind ingredients together in scalloped meat, fish, egg, and vegetable dishes. Medium white sauce may also be served  over  food. BUTTER SAUCES.—  A white sauce with a high percentage of butter and little or no seasoning other than salt is considered a butter sauce. This sauce is used principally with green vegetables, such as asparagus and broccoli, and with fish and shellfish. OTHER  SAUCES.—  Sauces served with meat, chicken,  seafood,  omelets,  and  spaghetti  are  prepared according to recipes in the AFRS. Also, commercially prepared sauce mixes are available. These include basic tomato, sweet and sour, cheese, barbecue, taco, and enchilada sauces. Directions for use are found on the containers. Some examples of sauces and their uses are as  follows: Sweet,  thickened: Raisin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baked ham Pineapple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baked ham Unsweetened,   thickened: Hot mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ham Tomato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Veal steaks Stuffed  green  peppers Uncooked,  unthickened: Tartar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Seafood Seafood cocktail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seafood Cooked,  unthickened: Barbecue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Beef,  pork Spaghetti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spaghetti Gravies Any  gravy  served  should  go  with  the  food  it  is intended to compliment. The O section of the AFRS contains  many  recipes  to  be  served  with  meat  and poultry. Thickened gravies are made by adding flour to  the  pan  drippings  left  after  roasting  and  browning meats. This flour mixture forms a roux that is then added  to  stock.  The  gravy  is  stirred  and  simmered until  the  mixture  thickens.  There  are  numerous types of gravies. A good gravy should be as smooth as cream. CREAM  GRAVY.—  Cream  gravies  are  made by  adding  milk  to  the  roux  instead  of  stock  or water. Cream   gravy   is   usually   served   with chicken  or  ham. NATURAL PAN GRAVY.— Natural pan gravy (au jus) is unthickened gravy that is usually served with roast beef. Water or stock is added to the meat drippings and the gravy is allowed to simmer until hot. BROWN GRAVY.—  Brown  gravy  is  prepared  by cooking the flour and fat mixture (roux) until it is brown. Brown gravy is the basic gravy used to make giblet, mushroom, onion, and vegetable gravies. Brown gravy mix is a dry mix that requires only the addition of hot water. Gravy  Preparation Thickeners,   liquids,   fats,   and   seasonings   are combined  to  form  gravies.  Certain  tips  will  assist  you in preparing and serving gravies. THICKENERS.— To make smooth gravy, a roux must be used for thickening. Flour or other starch will form lumps if added directly to hot liquid. To make brown gravy, the flour and fat mixture (roux) is cooked until it is a rich, brown color. The roux is added to the hot  stock  and  the  mixture  is  simmered  until  it  is thickened. To make cream gravy, the roux is cooked, but not browned. The roux is added to milk or light stock and cooked until thickened and no taste of the starch  remains. LIQUIDS.— If a large amount of gravy is prepared, there should be enough stock to ensure a good flavored gravy.   Tomato   juice   or   the   liquid   saved   from mild-flavored  cooked  or  canned  vegetables  (beans, peas, carrots) can be substituted for part of the water. Reconstituted soup and gravy base can be substituted for all or part of the stock. Since salt is an ingredient in these bases, no additional salt is added until cooking is completed. The gravy should then be tasted and salt added  only  if  necessary. FATS.— Fat from the pan drippings provides flavor. If there is not enough fat remaining in the pan from the meat to make a sufficient quantity of gravy, melted shortening  can  be  added. SEASONINGS.— Seasoning   the   gravy   is important.  Avoid  overseasoning.  Add  salt  and  pepper in  moderate  amounts  and  taste  the  gravy  during preparation to see if more is needed. 5-24

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