prevented by covering the fruit with lemon juice, or by
dipping the fruit in a antibrowning agent. Follow the
directions on the guideline cards for antibrowning
agents or those on the actual container.
FROZEN FRUITS. Frozen fruits are convenient
and available year-round. Little preparation is needed,
there is no waste, and less storage space is required than
for fresh fruit. Most frozen fruits are packed with sugar
or syrup. Thaw them in the unopened container and use
immediately to maintain quality.
The Navy procures frozen fruits such as berries
(strawberries, boysenberries), cherries, and peaches.
Frozen fruits are closest to the fresh counterpart in flavor
and appearance. They may be thawed by placing the
unopened container in the chill space 24 hours before
they are to be used. This allows the frozen fruit to thaw
completely and more evenly throughout.
CANNED FRUITS. Canned fruits require no
refrigeration and are available all year. They may be
packed in water, syrup, or natural juices. All canned
fruits should be served chilled.
DRIED FRUITS. Dried fruits, such as raisins,
apricots, prunes, and dates, can be used for pastry and
pie fillings and as ingredients in cakes, cookies, breads,
sweet doughs, and salads.
Wash dried fruits thoroughly before they are used.
They may be soaked to reduce cooking time, but avoid
a long soaking period because it produces a watery,
tasteless fruit. Cook raisins and dates without soaking.
If sugar is to be added, it should be at the end of the
If it is added at the beginning, it
interferes with the absorption of water.
DEHYDRATED FRUITS. Dehydrated fruit,
such as applesauce, maybe used in some recipes when
fresh or canned fruit is not available. Check the AFRS
Dehydrated fruits, such as instant applesauce, apple
slices, and diced apricots, are readily reconstituted by
adding a proportionate volume of water to a specified
weight of the particular dehydrated fruit. Like the
dehydrated vegetables discussed earlier, dehydrated
fruits because of their small weight and volume are
convenient to store. Dehydrated fruits maybe used for
desserts such as puddings, pies, and cakes, or they may
be reconstituted and served at any meal.
Vegetables of all types are nutritional necessities in
a well-balanced diet. In addition to the contribution of
important minerals and vitamins, vegetables add color,
flavor, and interest to meals. All too frequently
vegetables are rejected or left uneaten when they are
poorly cooked; consequently, they are not pleasing in
appearance or flavor.
A vegetable can become
unpopular simply from being overcooked, watery, or
poorly seasoned. Furthermore, the food value may be
lost or diminished by improper handling and cooking.
Vegetables are bought by the Navy in the following
forms: fresh, frozen, canned, dried, and dehydrated.
FRESH VEGETABLES. Most raw fresh
vegetables have waste or portions that are not edible.
When you peel, scrape, brush, trim, or cut these
vegetables, it is important not to destroy or damage
edible portions and especially not to lose the valuable
nutritional elements that are usually contained close to
the outer skin or peel. Select vegetables about equal in
size, or cut them into pieces of equal size. Then all the
pieces will be cooked uniformly in the same length of
time. Plan for cooking vegetables with the peel on
whenever possible, especially potatoes. If potatoes
must be peeled, do it very carefully so as to make thin
peelings. Much of the food value in a potato lies close
to the skin.
Washing. Wash all fresh vegetables thoroughly.
Use a brush to clean celery, carrots, beets, potatoes,
turnips, parsnips, or any vegetable that is pulled or dug
from the soil.
Tightly grown blossoms, heads, or
stem-type vegetables such as asparagus, broccoli,
cabbage, cauliflower, and brussels sprouts will harbor
worms and insects that may not be dislodged by casual
washing. Soak vegetables of this type in cold saltwater
(1 tablespoon salt to 1 quart of water) for 1/2 to 1 hour
and then rinse thoroughly. Turn cauliflower blossoms
end down in the soaking water; cut cabbages in halves
or quarters and remove the cores.
Wash leaf-type vegetables such as spinach, collards,
kale, and turnip greens in several changes of cold water
to remove dirt and sand particles. Lift these vegetables
from the water instead of draining the water off. The
dirt and grit will remain in the washing pan or sink. If
this water is drained or poured off, the dirt will remain
on the vegetables.
Retaining or Restoring Freshness. After
vegetables have been washed clean, keep them in a cool
storage place until they are to be prepared.
Wilted vegetables can be refreshened by placing
them in ice-cold water to which one-half cup of vinegar
per gallon of water has been added.
freshened, the vegetables should be
When they are
covered with a