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Fruits - 14164_116
Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Cooking Methods
prevented by covering the fruit with lemon juice, or by dipping the fruit in a antibrowning agent. Follow the directions  on  the  guideline  cards  for  antibrowning agents or those on the actual container. FROZEN FRUITS.—  Frozen  fruits  are  convenient and available year-round. Little preparation is needed, there is no waste, and less storage space is required than for fresh fruit. Most frozen fruits are packed with sugar or syrup. Thaw them in the unopened container and use immediately to maintain quality. The Navy procures frozen fruits such as berries (strawberries, boysenberries), cherries, and peaches. Frozen fruits are closest to the fresh counterpart in flavor and appearance. They may be thawed by placing the unopened  container  in  the  chill  space  24  hours  before they are to be used. This allows the frozen fruit to thaw completely and more evenly throughout. CANNED FRUITS.—  Canned fruits require no refrigeration and are available all year. They may be packed in water, syrup, or natural juices. All canned fruits should be served chilled. DRIED FRUITS.—  Dried  fruits,  such  as  raisins, apricots, prunes, and dates, can be used for pastry and pie fillings and as ingredients in cakes, cookies, breads, sweet  doughs,  and  salads. Wash dried fruits thoroughly before they are used. They may be soaked to reduce cooking time, but avoid a long soaking period because it produces a watery, tasteless fruit. Cook raisins and dates without soaking. If sugar is to be added, it should be at the end of the cooking  period. If  it  is  added  at  the  beginning,  it interferes  with  the  absorption  of  water. DEHYDRATED  FRUITS.—  Dehydrated  fruit, such as applesauce, maybe used in some recipes when fresh or canned fruit is not available. Check the AFRS for  directions. Dehydrated fruits, such as instant applesauce, apple slices,  and  diced  apricots,  are  readily  reconstituted  by adding  a  proportionate  volume  of  water  to  a  specified weight  of  the  particular  dehydrated  fruit.  Like  the dehydrated vegetables discussed earlier, dehydrated fruits because of their small weight and volume are convenient  to  store.  Dehydrated  fruits  maybe  used  for desserts  such  as  puddings,  pies,  and  cakes,  or  they  may be reconstituted and served at any meal. Vegetables Vegetables of all types are nutritional necessities in a well-balanced diet. In addition to the contribution of important  minerals  and  vitamins,  vegetables  add  color, flavor,  and  interest  to  meals.  All  too  frequently vegetables  are  rejected  or  left  uneaten  when  they  are poorly cooked; consequently, they are not pleasing in appearance   or   flavor. A  vegetable  can  become unpopular simply from being overcooked, watery, or poorly  seasoned.  Furthermore,  the  food  value  may  be lost  or  diminished  by  improper  handling  and  cooking. Vegetables are bought by the Navy in the following forms: fresh, frozen, canned, dried, and dehydrated. FRESH  VEGETABLES.—   Most   raw   fresh vegetables have waste or portions that are not edible. When  you  peel,  scrape,  brush,  trim,  or  cut  these vegetables, it is important not to destroy or damage edible  portions  and  especially  not  to  lose  the  valuable nutritional  elements  that  are  usually  contained  close  to the outer skin or peel. Select vegetables about equal in size, or cut them into pieces of equal size. Then all the pieces will be cooked uniformly in the same length of time.  Plan  for  cooking  vegetables  with  the  peel  on whenever  possible,  especially  potatoes.  If  potatoes must be peeled, do it very carefully so as to make thin peelings.  Much  of  the  food  value  in  a  potato  lies  close to the skin. Washing.— Wash all fresh vegetables thoroughly. Use a brush to clean celery, carrots, beets, potatoes, turnips, parsnips, or any vegetable that is pulled or dug from  the  soil. Tightly  grown  blossoms,  heads,  or stem-type  vegetables  such  as  asparagus,  broccoli, cabbage,  cauliflower,  and  brussels  sprouts  will  harbor worms and insects that may not be dislodged by casual washing. Soak vegetables of this type in cold saltwater (1 tablespoon salt to 1 quart of water) for 1/2 to 1 hour and  then  rinse  thoroughly.  Turn  cauliflower  blossoms end down in the soaking water; cut cabbages in halves or quarters and remove the cores. Wash leaf-type vegetables such as spinach, collards, kale, and turnip greens in several changes of cold water to remove dirt and sand particles. Lift these vegetables from  the  water  instead  of  draining  the  water  off.  The dirt and grit will remain in the washing pan or sink. If this water is drained or poured off, the dirt will remain on  the  vegetables. Retaining  or  Restoring  Freshness.—  After vegetables have been washed clean, keep them in a cool storage place until they are to be prepared. Wilted vegetables can be refreshened by placing them in ice-cold water to which one-half cup of vinegar per gallon of water has been added. freshened, the vegetables should be When  they  are covered with a 5-15

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