MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. Measures and
weights are the exact amount of each ingredient needed
for 100 portions. Amounts are listed parallel to the list
of ingredients. Quantities of dry ingredients weighing
more than 1/2 ounce usually are given as both weights
and measures. Most liquid ingredients are measured,
On the right side of the Measures column, a blank
space has been reserved for inserting the actual amounts
of ingredients needed to prepare the number of portions
the individual galley needs. These quantities may be
inserted in pencil directly on the recipe card and then
changed as necessary.
METHOD. Method describes how the ingredients
are to be combined and cooked and represents the best
accepted cooking procedures. For example, the method
will describe the best way to sift dry ingredients together,
to thicken a sauce, or to fold in beaten egg whites. Methods
are standardized since the same terms are used wherever
the same technique appears. The method contains
directions for the most efficient order of work, and
eliminating unnecessary tools and equipment and
unnecessary steps in preparation.
The directions are stated in simple, clear terms for
incorporating the ingredients. Each step begins with an
action verb such as dissolve, divide, drain, sift, flatten,
cover, pour, sprinkle, or bake. These words are the keys
to proper procedures and should be closely followed.
Included under method are specific details such as
If certain ingredients are to be set aside for later use,
this is so stated. For example, Gradually add sugar,
beat to light, firm peak. Set aside for use in step 6.
In a few instances, serving suggestions are included
under method. For example, Serve with lemon sauce
(Recipe No. K-9) or, if desired, top with whipped cream
(Recipe No. K-15).
ABBREVIATIONS. The basic abbreviations
used in the AFRS are as follows:
tsp = teaspon(s)
tbsp = tablespoon(s)
pt = pint(s)
qt = quart(s)
gal = gallon(s)
A.P. = as purchased
E.P. = edible portion (for example, potatoes,
peeled, prepared for cooking)
F = degrees Fahrenheit
oz = ounce(s)
lb = pound(s)
cn = can(s)
cyl = cylinder(s)
jr = jar(s)
NOTES. Notes appearing below the recipe
contain supplemental information such as possible
substitutions for ingredients. Specific techniques are
included to supplement information contained in the
Method column; for example, If a candy thermometer
is not available, heat mixture in step 1 until it forms a
soft ball in cold water.
Serving tips also may be
included as notes; for example, If desired, top with
whipped cream (Recipe No. K-15) before serving. In
step 3, if convection oven is used, bake at 350°F for 20
to 25 minutes.
VARIATIONS. Variations are included on many
recipes. They describe different ways to prepare the
product and constitute a major addition to the total
number of recipes contained in the AFRS. Each
variation is listed as a separate recipe in the index. For
example, the recipe for yellow cake includes these
variations: (1) banana-filled layer, (2) Boston cream
pie, and (3) chocolate cream. The variations in this
instance are named according to the principal ingredient
that alters the basic recipe. In other recipes where
different cooking techniques are used, these may
determine the name of the variation.
Recipe supplements are the written source that
explains how to prepare certain types of basic food.
Included as recipe supplements are guideline cards,
index cards, and index of recipes.
GUIDELINE CARDS. Guideline cards found in
some of the recipe sections are directions for preparing
a basic type of food. For instance, a guideline card is