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Problems Associated with Navigation - 14220_22
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Quartermaster 1 & C - Military manual for the Quartermaster rate
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Earth and the Terrestrial Coordinate System - 14220_24
Problems Associated with Navigation, Continued Direction Knowing  the  direction  between  two  positions  makes  it  possible  for  the navigator  to  lay  a  course  from  where  he  is  to  where  he  wants  to  go  and then  to  proceed  to  that  point.  Direction  will  be  presented  in  greater detail  later  in  this  chapter. Measuring Distance The  distance  between  two  points  is  the  physical  separation  without regard  to  direction.  Nautical  distance  is  measured  as  the  international nautical  mile  (nmi)  of  6,  076.1  feet.  The  nmi  is  longer  than  the  statute mile  (mi)  used  on  land,  5,  280  feet;  1.15/1  is  a  simple  ratio  often  used to  convert  nmi  to  mi. Time Time  in  navigation  is  always  based  on  the  24-hour  clock.  You  are already  familiar  with  this  type  of  timekeeping  as  it  is  what  we  use  in  the military. Speed The Relationship Between  Time, Speed,  and Distance Speed  is  defined  as  the  rate  of  movement.  In  navigation  speed  is referred  to  as  nautical  miles  per  hours  or  knots  (kn). We  can  now  put  this  all  together.  We  have  defined  the  major  problems associated  with  navigation.  The  solutions contained  in  later  text.  We  know  that  the position,  direction,  and  distance  to  travel.  But  how  does  speed  and  time figure  in  this  picture? to  these  problems  are navigator  must  determine That  brings  us  to  the  time,  speed,  and  distance  triangle.  If  you  know  the distance  you  need  to  travel  and  at  what  speed  you  will  proceed,  you  can use  simple  mathematics  to  determine  how  long  it  should  take  to  travel that  distance.  This  is  a  triangle,  because  if  you  know  any  two  values (time,  speed,  or  distance)  you  can  solve  for  the  unknown  value.  That brings  us  to  the  next  subject. Where  does  this  information  go?  How does  one  actually  go  from  one  known  position  to  another  known position  safely?  The  answer  is  the  nautical  chart!  The  remainder  of  this chapter  will  explore  the  nautical  chart  and  how  the  QM  uses  it. 1-7

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