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Motivation Principles - 14300_28
CHAPTER 3 MOTIVATION INTRODUCTION Motivating  students  to  learn  is  possibly  one  of  the  most  pondered  and  discussed  areas  among people  involved  in  the  education  and  training  of  others. How   to   get   students   interested   and involved  in  the  learning  process  has  long  been  one  of  the  greatest  challenges  for  instructors. Motivation   involves   the   activation,   direction,   and   persistence   of   a   specified   behavior.   While students  are  responsible  for  their  own  learning,  you  can  greatly  enhance  their  desire  to  learn  by creatively   using   motivational   techniques.   In   the   educational   sense,   motivation   is   the   process   of prompting  a  person  to  learn.    The  majority  of  your  students  will  respond  to  general  methods of   motivation.   However,   to   provide   appropriate   incentives   for   individual   students   to   learn,   you must   learn   to   recognize   their   needs,   incentives,   and   drives. Generally,   all   behavior   is   motivated. The   goal   of   instruction   is   to   motivate   students   to achieve   course   objectives. Instructors   sometime   mistakenly   believe   that   a   student   who   is   not participating  in  classroom  activities  or  finishing  homework  assignments  is  not  motivated. Strictly  speaking,  the  student  is  not  motivated  to  behave  in  the  manner  desired  by  the  instructor. This   chapter   provides   background   information   on   the   principles   of   motivation   and   offers   some practical   techniques   for   instructors   to   use   in   the   motivation   of   their   students. MOTIVATION   THEORY Before  looking  at  the  principles  of  motivation,  look  at  the  motivation  theory  developed  by Abraham   H.   Maslow.   Simply   stated,   Maslow’s   theory   proposes   that   individuals   will   seek   to gratify   higher   order   (growth)   needs   only   when   all   lower   order   (deficiency)   needs   have   been relatively  well  satisfied.  Based  on  Maslow’s  theory,  people  are  driven  to  satisfy  unfulfilled  needs in  a  specific  order.  Maslow  refers  to  the  order  in  which  they  fulfill  those  needs  as  a  hierarchy of  needs. Maslow’s  hierarchy  (fig.  3-1)  contains  a  lower  level  of  needs,  known  as  deficiency  needs,  and a   higher   level,   known   as   growth   needs. Deficiency   needs   include   physiological,   safety, belongingness  and  love,  and  esteem  needs.  Growth  needs  include  the  self-actualization,  desire for  knowledge  and  understanding,  and  aesthetic  needs. The   implications   of   this   particular   theory   to   the   training   environment   are   intriguing.   As   the instructor,  you  control  what  takes  place  in  the  classroom  or  laboratory.  That  means  you  play an   important   role   in   gratifying   the   needs   of   your   students.   Students   are   more   likely   to   try   to satisfy   their   desire   to   know   and   understand   once   their   physical   and   psychological   needs   have been   met. They   need   to   feel psychologically);   have   self-esteem; safe,   relaxed,   and   comfortable   (both   physically   and and  have  a  sense  of  belonging. 15

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