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Page Title: Cardinal Marks
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Preferred channel to starboard (fig. 5-28) Color: Green with one broad red horizontal band Shape (buoys): Can, pillar, or spar Topmark (when required): Single green can Light  (when  fitted): Color: Green Phase  Characteristics:  Composite  Group  Flashing (2 + 1) NOTE In buoyage Regions A and B, if marks at the sides of a channel are numbered or lettered, the numbering  or  lettering  will  follow  the conventional  direction  of  buoyage. Cardinal  Marks Cardinal marks are used in conjunction with the compass to indicate the best navigable water. A cardinal mark is placed in one of the four quadrants (north, east, south, or west) from the best water. A cardinal mark C69.221 Figure  5-28.–IALA  Maritime  Buoyage  System,  International Buoyage Region B preferred channel to starboard. takes its name from the compass point in which it is placed. Figure 5-29 shows the IALA Maritime Buoyage System  cardinal  marks  (buoys). Mariners are safe if they pass north of a north mark, east of an east mark south of a south mark and west of a west mark. Acardinal mark may be used to accomplish the  following: Indicate that the deepest water is an area on the named side of the mark Indicate the safe side on which to pass a danger Draw attention to a feature in a channel, such as a bend, junction, branch, or end of a shoal TOPMARK.—  By day, topmarks are the most important features of cardinal marks. The arrangement of the cones must be memorized. For north, the point of each cone is up. For south, the point of each cone is down. An aid to help you memorize the west topmark is its resemblance to a wine glass. Cardinal marks carry topmarks, whenever practical, with the cones as large as possible  and  clearly  separated. COLOR.—  Black and yellow horizontal bands are used to color cardinal marks. The position of the black band, or bands, is related to the points of the black topmarks. The black and yellow horizontal bands are used as follows: North—Black band above yellow band South—Black band below yellow band West—Black band with yellow bands above and below East-Black band above and below yellow band The shape of a cardinal mark is not important, but in the case of a buoy, it will be pillar or spar. LIGHT CHARACTERISTICS— When lighted, a cardinal mark exhibits a white light. The characteristics are based on a group of quick (Qk) or very quick (Vqk) flashes that distinguish the light as a cardinal mark and indicate its quadrant. The distinguishing quick or very quick  flashes  are  as  follows: North—Very quick flashing (Vqk) or quick flashing (Qk) East—Very quick flashing every 5 seconds (Vqk [3] 5s) or quick flashing every 10 seconds (Qk [3] 10s) South—Very  quick  flashing  followed  by  a  long  flash every 10 seconds (Vqk FL [6] + LF1 10s) or quick 5-32

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