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Page Title: Propelling Charges
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expelling charge forces out the base and the illuminating assembly, and ignites the star or candle. VARIABLE  TIME  NONFRAGMENTING (VT-NONFRAG).— VT-NONFRAG projectiles (fig. 6-3, view F) are loaded to avoid rupturing the body and spreading fragments when the fuze functions; however,  sometimes  the  projectile  ogive  breaks  up  into low-velocity fragments. They are designed for use in antiaircraft   target   practice,   particularly   against expensive drone targets, for observing the results of firing  without  frequent  loss  of  the  drones.  These projectiles  have  fillers  of  epsom  salts  or  other  inert material to give the projectile the desired weight. A color-burst unit, consisting of pellets of black powder and a pyrotechnic mixture, is placed in a cavity drilled in the center of the inert filler. The color burst is ignited through the action of the nose fuze and the black-powder pellets. The color-burst unit may be one of several colors that exits through the fuze cavity and ruptured projectile. PROPELLING CHARGES Propelling charges are mixtures of explosives designed to propel projectiles from the gun to the target. In  fixed  ammunition,  the  propelling  charge  and projectile  are  assembled  together  in  a  case  and  handled as one unit; the principal component parts are the brass or steel cartridge case, the primer, and a smokeless powder,  the  propelling  charge.  In  the  separated ammunition, the propelling charges and projectile are assembled separately; they are stored and handled as separate units until they are loaded into the gun. The propelling charge of the separated ammunition round consists of the propellant primer, details, and closure plug  assembled  into  the  metal  case.  The  propelling charges of separate loading ammunition are made up in sections (bag charges) separate from the projectile and primer.   Propelling   charges   for   all   calibers   of ammunition have some common features. There are two basic categories into which these features can be grouped: case ammunition and bag charges. Saluting, reduced, and clearing charges have components that are the same as case ammunition, so they are included with case  ammunition. Case  Ammunition Propelling charges for small- and medium-caliber guns are assembled with primer and powder enclosed in a brass or steel container, called a cartridge case (fig. 6-4, view A). Assembly of the entire charge in a single,  rigid,  protective  case  increases  the  ease  and Figure  6-4.–Propelling  charges. rapidity of loading and reduces the danger of flarebacks. Also, the case prevents the escape of gases toward the breech of the gun; it expands from the heat and pressure of the burning powder and forms a tight seal against the chamber. Reduced   Charge A reduced charge is one in which less than the service load of powder is placed in the cartridge case. Reduced charges may be used in target practice, to decrease the wear on the gun. Clearing  Charge When a round fails to seat fully upon being rammed into the gun chamber, thus preventing closure of the breech, or when the propelling charge fails to function, the projectile may be fired by extracting the full-sized case  and  loading  a  shorter  clearing  charge. Saluting  Charge Saluting charges are charges used when firing a gun to render honors. Since no projectile is involved in such firing, the charge consists of a cartridge case containing a black powder load and a primer. The ships normally employ 40-mm or 3-inch guns for saluting. Saluting 6-6

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