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Page Title: Ram Tensioner
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loads, while others can be used only for light cargo or personnel transfer. Standard rigs, named here only for familiarization  purposes,  include  the  Burton,  housefall, and  highline. The standard transfer replenishment alongside method (STREAM) is a high-speed, transfer method developed for transferring cargo and missiles between ships at sea. Passing a STREAM transfer rig is done in much the same manner as passing other rigs. During transfer, the missile is suspended from a combination strongback  and  trolley.  The  fundamental  difference between  STREAM  and  the  conventional  methods  is  the preset and controlled tension in the highline wire that allows STREAM to handle loads up to 9,000 pounds. A brief  description  of  the  major  STREAM  equipment follows. Ram  Tensioner The   ram-tensioned   system   employs   an   air- hydraulic ram unit to maintain constant tension on the span wire or highline, thus improving load control. An electronic control system assists the winch operator in maintaining  desired  tension  on  the  ram-tensioned  high- line. The ram tensioner consists of a large hydraulic cylinder (the piston acts as the ram), an air compressor, an accumulator, and air flasks. The highline is reeved through a movable block on the piston and a fixed block on the cylinder and then passed to the highline winch. Air from nearby flasks keeps pressure on a piston in the accumulator  cylinder,  from  which  the  pressure  is transmitted to the ram. As tension on the highline or span wire is relaxed, pressure in the system causes the ram (piston) to extend, taking up the slack. Sliding  Block The sliding block travels vertically on a king post of the delivery ship. The sliding block lifts the transfer load  above  bulwark  obstructions  before  transfer.  The highline  is  reeved  through  the  sliding  block. Sliding  Pad  Eye The sliding pad eye travels vertically on a king post or bulkhead on the receiving ship. Its function is to pick up and lower loads to the deck of the receiving ship. Other devices are available with STREAM that can perform  a  similar  function. Various items of specialized equipment have been designed for the STREAM system. These are used to handle missiles and other large or delicate ordnance. STREAM equipment in this category includes missile strongbacks,  dollies  and  adapters. BURTON METHOD Essential  elements  of  the  Burton  rig  are  two winches and two whips, one each in each ship. The outer ends of the whips are shackled to a triple-swivel cargo hook, and the load is transferred by one ship paying out on its whip while the other ship heaves in on its whip. A single Burton can transfer loads up to 6,000 pounds. There are various ways of rigging the delivering ship. Normally, the boom to the engaged side is used for the actual transfer and, with the boom on the opposite (or unengaged) side, for hoisting cargo from the hold. Another Burton method, may be used to transfer cargo when only one set of booms and winches is available at the active hatch. Burton whips are of 6 x 37, high-grade plow-steel wire rope, 3/4 inch in diameter and 800 feet long. One is tended on the delivering ship and one on the receiving ship. Each ship furnishes its own whip. SYNTHETIC HIGHLINES Synthetic highlines are used to exchange personnel, light   fleet   freight,   and   mail   during   scheduled replenishments  or  as  an  independent  operation. WARNING The maximum safe load for transfer by synthetic  highline  is  600  pounds. EMERGENCY  BREAKAWAY During  underway  replenishment,  an  emergency situation  may  arise  that  requires  an  emergency breakaway.  An  emergency  breakaway  is  an  accelerated standard breakaway, using an orderly and prearranged procedure.  The  objective  is  to  disengage  quickly without  damaging  the  rigs  or  endangering  personnel. Examples of conditions that warrant ordering an emergency breakaway are as follows: When  either  ship  experiences  an  engineering casualty  that  affects  its  ability  to  maintain  the replenishment course or speed When an enemy contact is reported that presents immediate   danger 4-34

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