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3. One broken wire within one rope lay length of any end fitting. 4.  Wear  of  one-third  the  original  diameter  of outside  individual  wires. 5.   Evidence  of  pitting  due  to  corrosion. 6.   Evidence of heat damage from any cause. 7.   Kinking,   crushing,   or   any   other   damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. 8.   Evidence  of  internal  corrosion,  broken  wires  on the underside of strands, excessive nicks, or core failure. Rusting   and   corrosion   of   the   wires   and deterioration of the fiber core sharply decrease the strength of a rope. It is impossible to estimate accurately the loss in strength from these effects. STORAGE Most of the following information comes from chapter 613 of the Naval Ships' Technical Manual (NSTM). The NSTM contains instructions for the maintenance, storage, and repair of equipment under the  cognizance  of  the  Naval  Sea  Systems  Command.  In it you can find valuable information not available elsewhere on the use, care, and upkeep of much of your equipment.  Aboard  most  ships,  the  chief  engineering officer has a set of these books. Wire rope should not be stored in places where acid is or has been kept. Stress the importance of keeping acid or acid fumes away from wire rope to all hands at all times. The slightest trace of acid coming in contact with wire rope will damage it at that particular spot. Many times wire rope that has given away at one point has been found to be acid damaged. Before storage, wire rope should always be cleaned and lubricated. If the lubricant film is applied properly and the wire is stored in a dry place, corrosion will be virtually  eliminated. LUBRICATION It is important to lubricate wire rope because wire is really a mechanical device with many moving parts. Each time a rope bends or straightens, the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope must slide upon each other, so a film of lubricant is needed on each moving part. Another important reason for lubrication is to prevent corrosion of the wires and deterioration of the hemp  core. Clean used wire ropes before you lubricate them. You can clean them using wire brushes, compressed air, super-heated steam, JP-5, or turbine oil MIL-L-17331 (2190). Cleaning removes the foreign material and old lubricant from the valleys between the strands and from the  spaces  between  the  outer  wires. WARNING When cleaning wire rope with JP-5, you must   wear   safety   goggles,   gloves,   and protective equipment. Work in a well-ventilated area, preferably open air, to reduce the chance of  vapor  inhalation. CAUTION You should never soak wire rope in JP-5, because  soaking  may  remove  the  lubricants from the inner wire rope and core. You may, however, soak wire rope in turbine oil if soaking is desired. Lubricant  may  be  applied  with  a  brush,  taking  care to work it in well. Another method is to pass the wire rope  through  a  box  containing  the  lubricant. The Naval Ships' Technical Manual, chapter 613, calls for lubricating wire rope with a chain lubricant, military  specification  MIL-G-18458  (ships).  This lubricant  should  be  used  when  possible.  When  military specification  MIL-G-18458  is  unavailable,  a  medium graphite grease or even motor oil may be substituted. Alternative lubricants must come from the PMS list of alternates.  Ordinarily  lubricants  are  applied  hot  so  they can penetrate the strands and the core more easily. WIRE-ROPE   FAILURE The following are some common causes of wire- rope  failure: Using  incorrect  size,  construction,  or  grade Dragging  over  obstacles Lubricating  improperly Operating over sheaves and drums of inadequate size Overriding or crosswinding on drums Operating  over  misaligned  sheaves  and  drums 3-22

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