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Page Title: Fitness-for-Duty Testing
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Remember, to be lawful, an exigency search must still be based upon a finding of probable cause. Because drugs  tend  to  remain  in  the  system  in  measurable quantities for some time, it is unlikely that this theory will be the basis of many urinalysis tests. Inspections Under Mil.R.Evid. 313 Commanders may order urinalysis inspections just as they may order any other inspection to determine and make sure of the security, military fitness, and good order  and  discipline  of  the  command. Urinalysis inspections may be ordered for the primary purpose of obtaining evidence for trial by court-martial or for other disciplinary purposes. This would defeat the purpose of an inspection and make it a search. Commands may use a  number  of  methods  of  selecting  service  members  or groups of members for urinalysis inspection, including, but not limited to the following: .  Random  selection  of  individual  service  members from the entire unit or from an identifiable segment or class of that unit. Random selection is achieved by making sure each service memher has an equal chance of being selected each time personnel are chosen. l  Selection,  random  or  otherwise,  of  an  entire subunit  or  identifiable  segment  of  a  command. Examples  of  such  groups  include  an  entire  department, division, or watch section; all personnel within specific paygrades;   all   newly   reporting   personnel;   or   all personnel returning from leave, liberty, or unauthorized absence  (UA). l Urinalysis testing of an entire unit.  As a means of quota control, Navy commands are required to obtain second-echelon  approval  before  conducting  all  unit sweeps  and  random  inspections  involving  more  than  20 percent of a unit, or 200 members. Failure to obtain such approval, however, will not invalidate the results of the testing. Service-Directed Testing Service-directed testing is actually nothing more than  inspections  of  units  expressly  designated  by  the Chief  of  Naval  Operations  (CNO).  These  include rehabilitation  facility  staff;  security  personnel;  A  school candidates;  officers  and  enlisted  in  the  accession pipeline; and those executing permanent change of station (PCS) orders to an overseas duty station. Valid Medical Purposes Blood tests or urinalyses also may be performed to assist  in  the  rendering  of  medical  treatment  (for example,   emergency   care,   periodic   physical examinations, and such other medical examinations as are  necessary  for  diagnostic  or  treatment  purposes).  Do not confuse this with a fitness-for-duty examination ordered by a service member’s command. Fitness-for-Duty Testing Categories  of  fitness-for-duty  urinalysis  testing  are briefly  described  as  follows.  Generally,  all  urinalyses not  the  product  of  a  lawful  search  and  seizure, inspection,   or   valid   medical   purpose   fall   within fitness-for-duty/comand-directed    categories. Command-directed testing. A command-directed test will be ordered by a member’s CO or OIC, or other authorized  individual  whenever  a  member’s  behavior, conduct, or involvement in an accident or other incident gives  rise  to  a  reasonable  suspicion  drug  abuse  and  a urinalysis has not been conducted on a probable cause or consensual basis. Command-directed tests are often ordered  when  suspicious  or  bizarre  behavior  does  not amount  to  probable  cause. Aftercare   and   surveillance   testing.   Aftercare testing  is  periodic  command-directed  testing  of identified  drug  abusers  as  part  of  a  plan  for  continuing recovery   following   a   rehabilitation   program. Surveillance  testing  is  periodic  command-directed testing of identified drug abusers who do not participate in a rehabilitation program as a means of monitoring for further drug abuse. Evaluation testing. This  refers  to  command- directed testing when a commander has doubt as to the member’s   wrongful   use   of   drugs   following   a laboratory-confirmed  urinalysis  result.  Evaluation testing  should  be  conducted  twice  a  week  for  a maximum of 8 weeks and is often referred to as a two-by-eight   evaluation. Safety   investigation   testing.   A   CO   or   any investigating officer may order urinalysis testing in connection  with  any  formally  convened  mishap  or safety   investigation. USES  OF  URINALYSIS  RESULTS Of’ particular impportance to the command is what use may be made of a positive urinalysis. The results of a  lawful  search  and  seizure,  inspection,  or  a  valid 4-24

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