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Page Title: Mixing Methods
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out of the oven. If excessive baking powder is used, the color will be dark and yellowish and the taste will be salty or bitter. Too little baking powder will result in the structure being heavy and dense with low volume. FAT.— General-purpose  shortening  compound  is used  in  quick  bread  and  batter  production.  Shortenings produce products with a soft crumb and aid in browning. EGGS.— An important ingredient in quick breads and  batter  is  eggs,  which  add  flavor,  color,  and palatability.  They  also  provide  some  leavening  action. Fresh whole eggs or frozen whole baking-type eggs are used. Dehydrated egg mix may be used as a successful substitute in any recipe if the eggs are sifted with the dry ingredients.  This  will  assure  even  distribution  and uniform  reconstitution  when  the  liquid  is  added. OTHER  INGREDIENTS.—  Other  ingredients include  spices;  grated,  whole,  or  chopped  fruits,  nuts, poppy  or  caraway  seeds;  cereals  such  as  bran  or cornmeal; and salt. Salt adds flavor. Mixing Methods How  ingredients  are  mixed  determines  to  a  large extent the structure and texture of the finished product. All ingredients should be evenly mixed. If needed, the flour gluten should be developed to the desired degree to keep the loss of the leavening gas to a minimum during  baking. These  general  rules  apply  to  mixing  quick  breads and  hatters,  regardless  of  which  mixing  method  is chosen: l The degree of mixing is always limited when the leavening is produced by baking powder. l The amount of mixing varies with the kind of ingredients and their proportion, except for leavening, For example, a product containing a high percentage of fat and sugar maybe mixed longer with less harm to the quality  of  the  finished  product. l Recipes in the AFRS outline should be followed, step by step, as the method for mixing quick bread halters. MUFFIN-MIXING METHOD.—  This  method  is used  for  pancakes,  muffins,  corn  bread,  dumplings,  and fritters. The sequence of steps for the muffin method includes sifting dry ingredients together, blending in the liquid and eggs, adding melted shortening, and mixing only  until  dry  ingredients  are  moistened.  Corn  bread, muffin,  and  dumpling  batters  should  appear  lumpy. BISCUIT OR PASTRY METHOD.—  This means of combining ingredients is used principally for biscuits. This dough contains more flour than liquid and is of a kneaded  consistency. The dough is prepared by sifting dry ingredients together,  blending  in  the  shortening,  adding  the  liquid, and  mixing  only  enough  to  yield  a  uniform  structure. The dough is then cut into the desired shapes and baked. CAKE  METHOD.—  Several  quick  breads  and batters are mixed by the cake method. Cake doughnuts, coffee cakes. 1. 2. 3. Quick cakes, and muffins are mixed similarly to batter Steps used in this method are as follows: Cream shortening and sugar, Add eggs. Gradually add the dry ingredients to the moist ingredients,  alternating  so  that  you  begin  and end with the dry ingredients. Bread Preparation Both drop and pour soft batters and roll-out dough preparation methods are important to know. These batters and roll-out doughs are explained individually in the  following  sections. Coffee  Cakes Coffee cakes are popular breakfast or brunch items. The recipe formulas are the same as for regular cakes eaten  as  desserts,  except  for  minor  ingredient  changes. The major difference is in the frosting used on cakes. Coffee  cakes  are  either  topped  with  sweetened crumbs or combined with fruit. Crumb cake and quick coffee cake recipes in the AFRS are of this type. Serve these  cakes  while  still  warm.  Quick  coffee  cakes  may be  prepared  with  biscuit  mix.  Check  the  AFRS  for variations. Corn  Bread Corn  bread  is  a  quick  bread  popular  in  both northern  and  southern  parts  of  the  United  States. Yankee-style  corn  bread  is  prepared  with  sugar; southern style is prepared without sugar. Jalapeno corn bread may be prepared by adding chopped jalapeno peppers. Corn bread can be baked in either sheet pans (18 by 26 inches) or the batter may be poured into muffin pans to make muffins. Corn bread mix is available. See the AFRS recipe card for directions. 8-12

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