and hard rolls is almost endless. Accurate scaling and
skilled handling in forming shapes are required. Follow
AFRS guidelines for hot roll makeup.
. Since rolls are smaller than bread, proofing time
is very critical. Therefore, overproofed rolls will be
blistered on the surface and will fall when placed in the
oven. The texture will be coarse.
Types of Rolls
Two variations of hot rollshard rolls and
brown-and-serve rollscan be made using the
short-time formula. About 1 1/2 hours preparation time
per batch of hot rolls is saved if the short-time formula
is used instead of the straight dough method. Also, a
variety of sweet rolls can be made from the basic sweet
BROWN-AND-SERVE ROLLS. For makeup,
follow the procedure described for plain rolls for cutting
and shaping. About 30 minutes (three-fourths proof) is
needed for proofing. Bake at 300°F for 12 to 15 minutes
or until lightly browned. Partially baked rolls may be
refrigerated at 40°F up to 2 days. If freezer space is
available, these rolls freeze satisfactorily up to 5 days.
Finish baking at 425°F for about 12 minutes.
HARD ROLLS. Hard rolls should have a crisp
crust. Hard rolls must be thoroughly fermented or well
aged because young dough produces tough, rubbery
crusts. Bread flour is necessary for properly fermented
or aged dough.
Allow 1 1/2 hours before punching.
Varieties of hard rolls include round, French, and
SWEET ROLLS. A wide variety of sweet rolls
can also be made from the simple basic sweet dough
recipe. Sweet dough is prepared from a bread formula
high in sugar, shortening, eggs, and other enriching
There are two types of sweet
doughregular sweet dough and Danish pastry.
Products prepared from either of these doughs may be
similar in size, shape, and weight but will differ
considerably in texture. The fine, even grain and texture
of regular sweet dough items are quite different from the
flaky texture of the Danish pastry products. The dough
should be smoother than bread dough, but it should not
stick to your hands.
Among the types of sweet rolls that can be made
from this basic recipe are cinnamon buns, butterfly rolls,
doubleleaf rolls, pecan rolls, twists, chaintwists, braids,
crullers, snails, crescents, raisin buns, hot
plain coffee cake, small coffee cakes, and
Swedish tea rings (fig. 8-3). Specific instructions for
making each of these types of sweet rolls from the basic
dough recipe are given in the AFRS.
Much of the attractiveness of sweet rolls is due to
the glazes and fillings used. You will find the recipes
for these glazes and fillings in the AFRSFrostings
and Fillings, section D.
Sweet Dough Mix
Some GMs purchase commercial sweet dough mix
that is available through the supply system.
Sweet dough mix has premeasured and combined
ingredients, except for water and yeast. Follow package
or can instructions in mixing, fermentation, panning,
and baking the dough.
Quick breads are bakery products in which
quick-acting leavening agents such as baking powder
and baking soda are used. Examples of quick breads are
pancakes, muffins, and biscuits. These products require
less time to mix and bake than yeast-raised products.
Soft batters contain varying amounts of liquid and
may be prepared in either pour batters or drop batters.
Pour batters are thin enough to pour directly from a
container into cooking pans. An example of a pour
batter is pancake batter. Drop batters are thick enough
to require spooning into baking pans. An example of a
drop batter is muffins.
Roll-out doughs are soft dough products such as
baking powder biscuits, or stiff dough products such as
Dough or Batter Ingredients
Batters or doughs are made with dry mixtures of
flour, baking powder, salt, liquids, and other ingredients
such as fats, eggs, sugar, and flavoring.
FLOUR. General-purpose flour is used for quick
breads and batters.
General-purpose flour produces
finer grained baked products than bread flours.
LIQUIDS. Nonfat dry milk is used in recipes for
quick breads. The dry milk is sifted together with the
other ingredients and the liquid is added later in mixing.