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area, with each trying to do things his or her own way,  result  in  conflicting  orders.  It  is  far  better to break the functions down and give each super- visor clear responsibilities within a definite area. Holders  of  adjacent  territory  then  tend  to  keep the  supervisor  within  bounds. A special chain of command should be estab- lished  for  replenishments.  At  the  top  is  the  supply officer who doubtless observes the operation from various spots on the hangar deck. The supply of- ficer  may  need  runners  to  keep  informed  of  the replenishment  operation. The  next  level  is  the  junior  officers  of  the department,  each  with  responsibility  in  a  par- ticular area. If there are not enough areas to use the  available  junior  officers,  some  of  them  may be designated by the supply officer as observers who  are  assigned  to  look  for  ways  to  improve future replenishment and be on the alert to spot any  unsafe  practices  or  potentially  dangerous situations. If any unsafe conditions are observed, they  should  be  called  to  the  attention  of  the responsible  supervisor  at  once  and  brought  up later at the critique. Rotation is usually practiced so that they may take part in the next replenish- ment.  If  there  are  not  enough  junior  officers  to fill the required posts, the most senior petty of- ficers are assigned to fill in as necessary. The third level consists of senior petty officers who are assigned to specific functions within the areas supervised by the junior officers. The func- tions assigned to each should be clearly defined in  advance.  Each  should  be  responsible  only  to the  officer  in  charge  of  that  area. Other levels may be established if local con- ditions  warrant.  Care  should  be  exercised  that each person in each level answers only to the per- son  directly  above,  and  each  should  know  who his  or  her  immediate  senior  is. Checkers.— Checkers are assigned to check and sort only. These tasks occupy so much of their time that they are unable to supervise any other activity  effectively.  They  confine  themselves  to directing  separation  of  different  items,  leaving  the movement and storage of the items to the person- nel  assigned  supervisory  duties.  The  fact  that  a person assigned to check or sort is senior to the person  assigned  to  supervise  general  movement of material does not serve to negate the authority of  the  supervisor  whose  position  is  military  rather than  professional. Each  station  where  material  is  checked  and sorted should be manned by personnel qualified to   handle   each   type   of   material   reasonably expected  to  be  encountered  there.  If  provisions are segregated on the messdecks, there is obviously no point in having AKs or SHs standing by to ac- cept material that is never delivered. During  a  replenishment,  supply  department personnel  may  be  assigned  as  follows: JUNIOR OFFICERS may be assigned on the basis of one to each of the three or four hangar bays and one to the flight deck, if that station is to be used. Usually an officer is also assigned to each  of  the  forward  and  after  messdecks  if  pro- visions are to be struck below from these points. PETTY OFFICER SUPERVISORS should be assigned smaller areas. For instance, one person should have charge of movement of material from receiving stations No. 1 and No. 2 to the sorting area.  Another  similar  assignment  should  be  made for the flight deck receiving station, if used, and a  third  person  should  be  assigned  to  movement of  material  from  the  sorting  station  to  strike stations.  Each  strike  station  should  have  a supervisor. Checkers should be assigned to each sorting station  to  direct  segregation  of  material.  They must be thoroughly familiar with the material and storage  locations.  Movement  of  material  out  of the sorting station should be the province of the supervisor. Movement  of  material  from  the  flight  deck should  be  the  responsibility  of  the  supervisors assigned  to  the  flight  deck.  When  material  has been  loaded  onto  elevator  No.  2  and  lowered  to hangar deck level, it then becomes the responsibil- ity  of  the  hangar  bay  No.  1  supervisor  to  make sure  movement  to  the  applicable  strike  stations occurs. MATERIALS-HANDLING    EQUIPMENT Efficient  use  of  materials-handling  equipment eases  the  movement  of  cargo  in  holds  and  on decks during replenishment operations. On com- batants,  the  kinds  of  equipment  available  and  the space  available  at  replenishment  stations  vary from  ship  to  ship.  Transporters,  forklift  trucks, pallet-type  handlift  trucks  (pallet  jacks),  hand trucks,  dollies,  skate  wheel  or  roller  conveyors, and  other  devices  are  provided  to  aid  the  cargo movement  to  minimize  the  time  and  effort  re- quired to complete the replenishment operation. Ships cannot properly perform their primary mis- sion while supplies clutter their decks, bays, and passageways. The replenishment operation itself 7-13

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