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Enlisted Pesonnel
and  new  130-mm  dual-purpose,  twin-gun  mount; and the Udaloy’s SA-NX-9 SAM. Presently,  the  Soviet  navy  includes  about  185 surface    combatant    ships    and    craft    carrying surface-to-surface  missiles.  In  addition,  nearly  70 of   the   navy’s   submarines   carry   subsurface-to- surface  missiles.  The  Kirov  and  Slava  cruisers (introduced in 1982) and the Sovremennyy DDG’s have  greatly  increased  cruise-missile  firepower. They  carry  antiship  missiles   with   performance characteristics that make offensive tactics increas- ingly difficult. Also  entering  the  fleet  during  1980  were  two general-purpose  submarines  classes,  the  Oscar  I (fig. 1-5) and the Kilo. Those in the Oscar  I  class are   nuclear-powered,   cruise-missile   attack   sub- marines  (SSGN).  They  have  slightly  over  three times    the    displacement    of    their    functional predecessors, the Charlie II-class SSGNs, and can carry  24  ASCMs.  In  wartime,  the  Oscar  I-class submerged-launch     SS-N-19     ASCMs     will     be targeted  primarily  against  NATO  carrier  battle groups.  In  contrast,  the  Kilo-class  diesel-electric attack submarines (SS) are relatively small (about 3,000   metric   tons).   These   submarines   rely   on antisurface  or  ASW  torpedoes  and  were  designed for  operations  primarily  in  sea  areas  near  the Soviet Union. The  Oscar  I  and  Kilo  classes  of  attack  sub- marines are noteworthy in that they typify recent Soviet naval construction  trends.  Specifically,  the Soviets  have  continued  building  naval  platforms capable of operating in the open ocean. They have built    these    vessels    without    sacrificing    those designed to perform the Soviet navy’s traditional coastal defense mission. These vessels demonstrate  marked  improvements  in  submarine quieting.  This  feature  reduces  their  noise  level under certain operating conditions, while improving   their   effectiveness   against   opposing submarines. Improvements of existing ASW aircraft evolved into the production of the Helix A and the Helix B ship-based  helicopter  and  the  long-range  Bear  F Mod  4.  Similar  improvements  in  ships  designed primarily for ASW have also been observed. Even the  largest  modern  Soviet  combatants,  including the  Kiev-class  carriers  and  the  Kirov-class  Cans, carry   sensor   and   weapons   suites   (a   group   of systems).    These    suites    include    powerful    low frequency  sonorous;  ASW  rockets,  missiles,  and torpedoes; and ASW helicopters. The    Soviets    have    expended    considerable resources   in   recent   years   on   developing   ASW platforms    and    systems,    particularly    nuclear- powered  attack  submarines.  However,  they  have not  yet  resolved  the  problem  of  locating  Western submarines in the open ocean. All    things    considered,    the    Soviets    are    a formidable  naval  power.  They  can  be  expected  to increase   their   emphasis    on    making    general- purpose naval forces more capable. They can also be  expected  to  continue  challenging  the  West’s traditional dominance of the open oceans. SOVIET NAVY PERSONNEL Soviet   navy   personnel   occupy   a   respected position within the Soviet society. Military service in the Soviet Union is regarded as a special  form of service to the state. It is rewarded by 134.4 Figure 1-5.-Soviet OSCAR-I submarine. 1-17

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