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Glossary -Continued: D
Legalman 3 & 2 - Navy Lawyer / Jag training guide manuals
Glossary -Continued: H - L
ENTRAPMENT—A defense available when actions of an agent of the government intentionally instill in the mind of the accused a disposition to commit a criminal  offense,  when  the  accused  has  no  notion, predisposition, or intent to commit the offense. ENTRY   LEVEL   STATUS—Upon   enlistment,   a member qualifies for entry level status during either (1) the first 180 days of continuous active military service or (2) the first 180 days of continuous active service after a break of more than 92 days of active service. A member of a Reserve component who is not on active duty or who is serving under a call or order to active duty for 180 days or less begins entry level   status   upon   enlistment   in   a   Reserve component. ERROR—A failure to comply with the law in some way at some stage of the proceedings. EVIDENCE—Any   species   of   proof,   or   probative matter,  legally  presented  at  trial,  through  the medium of witnesses, records, documents, concrete objects,  demonstrations,  and  so  forth,  for  the purpose of inducing belief in the minds of the triers of fact. EXCULPATORY—Anything that would exonerate a person  of  wrongdoing. EXECUTION   OF   HIS   OR   HER   OFFICE— Engaging  in  any  act  or  service  required  or authorized to be done by statute, regulation, or the order of a superior. EX  POST  FACTO  LAW—A  law  passed  after  the occurrence of a fact or commission of an act that makes  the  act  punishable,  imposes  additional punishment, or changes the rules of evidence to the disadvantage of a party. EXTENUATION—Information that renders a crime less heinous than it would be without it and is presented in an effort to lessen the punishment that could be awarded at a court-martial or a nonjudicial punishment   proceeding. EXTRA   MILITARY   INSTRUCTION—Extra   tasks assigned   to   one   exhibiting   behavioral   or performance  deficiencies  for  the  purpose  of correcting   those   deficiencies   through   the performance  of  the  assigned  tasks;  also  known  as additional  military  duty  or  additional  military instruction. FEIGN—To misrepresent by a false appearance statement; to pretend, to simulate, or to falsify. or FINDINGS—The  determination  of  the  issue  as  to whether  an  accused  is  guilty  or  innocent. FINE—A  type  of  court-martial  punishment  in  the nature of a pecuniary judgment against an accused, which,  when  ordered  executed,  makes  him  or  her immediately  liable  to  the  United  States  for  the  entire amount  of  money  specified. FORFEITURE OF PAY—A type of court-martial or nonjudicial punishment depriving the accused of all or part of the accused’s pay. FORMER  JEOPARDY—A  defense  in  bar  of  trial  that no person will be tried for the same offense by the same sovereign a second time without his or her consent; also known as double jeopardy. FORMER PUNISHMENT—A defense in bar of trial that no person may be tried by court-martial for a minor offense for which punishment under Article 15, UCMJ, has been imposed. FORMER  TESTIMONY—Testimony  of  a  witness given in a civil or military court at a former trial of the   accused,   or   given   at   a   formal   pretrial investigation of an allegation against the accused, in which the issues were substantially the same. FRISK—Contact of the outer clothing of a person to detect by the sense of touch whether a concealed weapon is being carried. GENERAL   COURT-MARTIAL—The   highest   trial court  within  the  military  judicial  system. GENERAL  DISCHARGE—An  administrative discharge  given  to  military  personnel  who  do  not qualify for an honorable discharge. GRANT  OF  IMMUNITY—A  promise  of  immunity from prosecution in return for courtroom testimony. GRIEVOUS   BODILY   HARM—A   serious   bodily injury; does not include minor injuries, such as a black  eye  or  a  bloody  nose,  but  does  include fractured  or  dislocated  bones,  deep  cuts,  torn members  of  the  body,  serious  damage  to  internal organs,  and  other  serious  bodily  injuries. GROSS  NEGLIGENCE—A  wanton,  careless,  and reckless disregard of the rights and safety of others; an  utter  indifference  to  the  consequences  of  one’s actions; a total abandonment of the standard of reasonable care coupled with a wanton disregard for the safety of others; that degree of negligence that is  substantially  higher  in  magnitude  than  simple inadvertence,  but  falls  short  of  intentional  wrong. AII-7

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