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Chapter 7 Nutrition and Menu Planning - 14163_151
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Mess Management Specialist 1 & C - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
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Vitamins - 14163_153
Calories A  knowledge  of  the  calorie  content  of  food  is important to you as an MS. Your skill in developing healthy menus plays a critical role in the support of the physical  fitness  and  personal  appearance  of  Navy personnel. The  role  of  the  foodservice  division  in meeting  this  need  is  providing  lower  calorie  food choices.   Some   low-calorie   food   choices   include low-calorie salad dressing; salads and relishes (raw vegetables);  skim  and/or  low-fat  milk;  fresh  and/or tamed  fruit  drained  of  syrup;  lean  meat,  poultry,  fish, or  seafood  without  added  high-calorie  sauces  or  gravies; a  vegetable  choice  without  added  fat;  and  light  desserts in smaller portions. Think-thin menus are planned using the same principles and standards used for the general menu  and  should  be  based  on  the  general  menu. Think-thin menus should include all the basic menu components  while  eliminating  high-calorie  extras  such as gravies, sauces, and toppings. Calorie content is influenced by preparation methods and portion size. Guidance on planning low-calorie meals, low-fat food preparation,  and  think-thin  portion  sizes  of  Armed Forces Recipe Service (AFRS) recipes is contained in Foodservice Operations, NAVSUP P421. Food Nutrients There are six types of food nutrients. Most of us can get enough of these nutrients by eating foods from the major  food  groups  each  day.  These  nutrients  are discussed  next. PROTEINS.— The chief function of protein in the body  is  to  supply  the  tissue-building  material.  Protein itself is a chemically complex organic substance that contains nitrogen in combination with carbon, oxygen, and  hydrogen. In  the  process  of  digestion,  these substances break down into smaller units called amino acids. These units, in turn, are rebuilt into body protein. Certain  amino  acids  are  necessary  for  maintaining growth,  weight,  and  good  health.  Foods  are  classified as  protein  foods  only  when  they  contain  protein  in sufficient  amounts  to  be  of  value  when  the  food  is consumed  in  normal  amounts. Animal  protein  foods-meat,  poultry,  fish,  eggs, milk, and milk products, such as cheese-contain the necessary amino acids essential to body structure. The protein in cereals, vegetables, and legumes lacks some of the important amino acids and alone cannot support growth.  However,  vegetable  proteins  such  as  dried beans, dried peas, and peanuts can supplement the animal proteins, and when they are served in the proper combination  can  provide  all  the  essential  amino  acids without  the  addition  of  any  animal  protein. FATS.— Fats provide twice as much energy and calories  as  do  carbohydrates  or  protein.  Fats  are important in the diet to furnish energy, provide essential fatty acids, transport fat-soluble vitamins and aid in their absorption,  increase  palatability,  and  give  a  feeling  of fullness. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that  excessive  amounts  of  total  fat  may  lead  to  an increased risk of coronary heart and vascular diseases. Emphasis should be placed on planning menus toward attainment  of  lower  fat  concentrations  while maintaining  acceptability.  A  significant  reduction  of  fat can be achieved by lowering added fats during food preparation and increasing the proportion of lean meats, fish, poultry, skim milk, and other low-fat dairy products in the menu. CARBOHYDRATES.— Carbohydrates     are generally low in calories and fat and high in fiber. Complex  carbohydrates  are  found  in  grains,  vegetables, and  legumes  such  as  dried  beans  and  split  peas. Nutritionists recommend that we get at least 55- to 60-percent of our calories from complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrate foods play an important role in weight control. They supply the body with energy in a constant,  time-released  manner.  Since  carbohydrates supply sustained energy, athletes should get 60- to 70-percent   of   their   calories   from   carbohydrates. Carbohydrates  are  stored  in  the  muscles  as  glycogen, which is essential for endurance. Additionally, a diet high  in  the  soluble  fiber  found  in  legumes,  fruits, vegetables, and some grains may play a role in lowering blood  cholesterol. MINERALS.—   Twenty   known   minerals   are essential  to  health.  Some  of  the  more  important minerals  will  be  explained  next. Calcium.— The most abundant mineral in the body is calcium and, except for iron, it is the most Likely to be inadequate in the diets of many age groups. (From the age of 9, the diets of many girls and women may lack as much as 25 percent to 30 percent of the calcium they need.) Almost all calcium, and most phosphorus, which works closely with calcium in the body, is in the bones and  teeth. The rest plays a vital role in tissue and body fluids. Soft  tissue,  or  muscle,  also  has  a  high  phosphorus content. Calcium is required for blood to clot and for the heart to function normally. The nervous system does not work properly when calcium levels in the blood are below  normal. 7-2

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