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Appendix I - References - 14164_308
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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_310
APPENDIX  II GLOSSARY ABSORPTION—(Baking  term)  Refers  to  the  property of  flour  to  absorb  and  hold  liquid.  (Frying)  Refers to fat absorption in food products as they are fried in deep fat. ACIDITY—Sourness or tartness in a food product; a condition indicating excess fermentation in yeast dough;  with  soda,  generates  carbon  dioxide  for leavening  in  cakes. AERATION—The  treatment  of  dough  or  batter  by charging with gas to produce a volume increase; to induce air so that amass becomes lighter or fluffier. AEROBIC   BACTERIA—Those   that   require   the presence of free oxygen, such as found in the air, for growth. AGING—A flavor-enhancing process usually applied to  beef.  The  meat  is  hung  in  a  temperature- controlled  room  for  a  specific  period  of  time. During this time a chemical reaction occurs in the meat; it becomes more tender because of the partial “digestion” of the connective tissue in the meat. Aged  flavor  is  noticeable  after  21  days  at  chill temperatures. A  LA  KING—Food  served  with  a  rich  cream  sauce usually  containing  green  peppers  and  pimentos  and sometimes  mushrooms  or  onions. ALA MODE—In a fashion or the style of; for example, desserts served with ice cream or pot roast of beef cooked  with  vegetables. ALBUMEN—Egg  white. ALMOND PASTE—A confection ingredient made of finely  ground  almonds  and  sugar. AMBROSIA—(Greek  mythology)  Descriptive  term applying to any food or drink exquisitely gratifying in taste or scent; the name of a favorite southern dessert  made  of  oranges,  bananas,  pineapple,  and shredded  coconut. AMOEBA—One of the simplest forms of animal life; grows in water. ANAEROBIC  BACTERIA—Those  that  grow  in  an absence of free oxygen, deriving oxygen from solid or liquid materials and producing toxic substances. ANGLAISE—(French) English, a la anglaise means “in English style,” as consommé anglaise. ANTIPASTI—(or  Antipasto)  (Italian)  An  appetizer,  or a spicy first course consisting of relishes, cold sliced meats rolled with or without stuffings, fish, or other hors d’oeuvres eaten with a fork. ANTISEPTIC—An  agent  that  may  or  may  not  kill microorganisms,   but  does  inhibit  their  growth. Peroxide is an example. APPETIZER—A  small  portion  of  food  or  drink  before, or as the first course of, a meal. These include a wide assortment of items ranging from cocktails, canapes, and hors d’oeuvres to plain fruit juices. The function of an appetizer is to pep up the appetite. ASPIC—(French)  A  molded  jelly  made  from  different preparations. The base is gelatin which sets the mixture. Various liquids may be used, but tomato juice  is  most  common.  Recipes  may  require chopped vegetables, fish, poultry, or meats in aspic. AU GRATIN—(French) Food creamed or moistened with  eggs,  milk,  or  stock,  covered  with  bread crumbs and butter or cheese, and baked until the top is  brown. AU JUS—(French) With natural juice. Roast rib au jus, for example, is beef served with unthickened gravy. AU NATUREL—(French) In a natural manner. A dish served in a simple style. BACILLI—Cylindrical   or   rod-shaped   bacteria responsible  for  such  diseases  as  botulism,  typhoid fever,  and  tuberculosis. BACTERIA—Microscopic,    one-celled    organisms found in soil, water, and most material throughout nature.  Some  are  responsible  for  disease  and  food spoilage,   others   are   useful   in   industrial fermentation. BACTERICIDE—Any  substance  that  kills  bacteria and related forms of life. BAKE—To cook by dry heat in an oven either covered or   uncovered. Usually  called  roasting  when referring to meats. AII-1

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