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Fillings and Finishes - 14164_191
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Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
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Cake Making - 14164_193
Toppings Toppings such as glazed nut, orange coconut, raisin, streusel, pecan, or praline toppings are added to sweet rolls  or  coffee  cakes  before  baking. PIZZA Almost any lean dough formula, such as that for French bread, can be used for making pizza. The major difference  between  a  particular  formula  for  pizza  and lean bread doughs is that the yeast is not fed. That is, sugar is not an ingredient in a pizza formula because it is not needed to supply the yeast energy. Volume is not a factor in pizza doughs. Fermentation for pizza is relatively short in comparison with other bread doughs and  makeup  consists  only  of  flattening  the  dough  to  the required  dimensions. Partially  baked  pizza  crusts  are  prepared commercially and frozen. Add galley-prepared pizza sauce and bake according to package directions. DESSERTS Desserts  are  popular  in  the  GM.  A  dessert  maybe as simple as a fruit gelatin or as elaborate as a decorated cake. The AFRS has a wide variety of recipes for all types of desserts. The AFRS also has step-by-step procedures for the preparation and service of desserts, but the end result is often determined by the dedication and experience of the Mess Management Specialist (MS) that prepares the dessert. CAKES Cakes  are  popular  desserts  in  the  GM.  A  wide variety of colors from a few basic recipes are possible through the use of varied shapes, frostings, or fillings. Cakes are easily made in large quantities and they are less  perishable  than  many  other  types  of  desserts. Service in the GM is greatly facilitated by the use of cakes for dessert because they can be made up ahead of time. Types Cakes  can  be  divided according  to  the  ingredients into three separate types and the proportions of the ingredients  used  in  each.    The  three  types  are  batter cakes, foam cakes, and chiffon cakes. BATTER    CAKES.—    Batter    cakes    contain shortening. They include the pound cakes (loaf type) containing a high percentage of fat, the plain cakes (basic  type  of  layer)  containing  smaller  percentages  of fat, and the chocolate cakes (incorporating cocoa and soda) such as devil’s food and mild chocolate cakes. FOAM CAKES.— Two kinds of foam cakes served in the GM are angel food and sponge cakes. Angel food cakes are foam cakes that are leavened by air beaten into the egg white. Cream of tartar is added to the egg whites to make them firmer when they are beaten. Sponge cakes are foam cakes containing baking powder and whole eggs. The eggs are combined with the sugar and heated until the mixture is lukewarm (110°F), and then the mixture is beaten. CHIFFON CAKES.— Chiffon cakes contain both foam  and  batter,  mixed  separately  and  folded  to  a mixture. The subdivisions of the three types are many and dependent  upon  the  method  of  incorporating  the ingredients and upon the variation of ingredients added to the basic recipe. Batter and sponge-type cakes are the ones  normally  prepared  in  Navy  dining  facilities; consequently,  further  discussion  will  relate  only  to these. Functions of Cake Ingredients Each ingredient in a basic recipe has a specific function. Flour furnishes structure and is used to hold the other materials together in making a cake. It should be a  general-purpose  flour. Sugars,  used  chiefly  as  sweeteners,  have  a tenderizing effect resulting from their ability to soften flour   protein   and   starches.   By   lowering   the caramelization point of the batter, sugars allow the cake crust to color at a lower temperature. Sugars also help to retain moisture in the baked cake, thereby keeping the cake moist and edible for several days. Shortening carries the air that is incorporated in the finished cake batter. This air has a tenderizing action on the  cake  by  virtue  of  its  leavening  action.  Thus, shortening is considered to be a tenderizing agent. Eggs furnish structure, moisture, flavor, and color. Egg whites for whipping must be free from grease or traces  of  egg  yoke—as  little  as  one-tenth  of  1  percent will  adversely  affect  the  whipping  quality. Milk, water, fruit juice, or coffee can be used as the liquid in cake. Liquid is needed to combine and actuate 8-16

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