buttermilk, and nonfat dry milk. A serving also may
consist of yogurt, ice cream, ice milk, and cheese,
including cottage cheese. You should count the
following as examples of a serving from the this group:
l One 8-ounce cup of milk or yogurt
. 1 1/2 ounces of natural cheese
l 2 ounces of processed cheese
NUTRITIVE VALUE. Milk and most milk
products are relied on to provide protein, calcium,
phosphorus, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and B12. In fact,
milk and most milk products are the major source of
calcium in the American diet.
Also, liquid milk is
fortified with vitamin D, which aids in the absorption of
calcium. When fortified with vitamins A and D, low-fat
or skim milk products have essentially the same
nutrients as whole milk products, but fewer calories and
less fat content.
Some dairy products contain large amounts of fat
However, low-fat dairy products
contain equivalent amounts of calcium. To provide
lower fat choices for your patrons, cook with nonfat dry
milk; serve 1 percent low-fat and skim milk; offer
low-fat yogurt and lower fat milk desserts, like ice milk
or frozen yogurt. Include cheese scheduling in your
menu planning. For example, au gratin potatoes and
club spinach both have cheese. Therefore, limit to one
dish of either per meal.
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts
The food pyramid suggests 2 to 3 servings each day
from this group, depending on a persons activity level.
The total amount of these servings should be equivalent
to 5 to 7 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish per
WHAT IS A SERVING? It includes beef, veal,
lamb, pork poultry, fish, shellfish (shrimp, oysters,
crabs, and so on), organ meats (liver, kidneys, and so
on), dry beans or peas, soybeans, lentils, eggs, seeds,
nuts, peanuts, and peanut butter.
Counting to see if you have an equivalent of 5 to 7
ounces of cooked lean meat can be difficult. This is
because portion sizes vary with the type of food and
meal. For example, 6 ounces may come from one egg
for breakfast (count as 1 ounce of
of sliced turkey in a sandwich for
of cooked hamburger for dinner.
lean meat); 2 ounces
lunch; and 3 ounces
NUTRITIVE VALUE. Meat, poultry, and fish
supply protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc. The other
foods in this groupdry beans, eggs, and nuts-are
similar to meats in providing protein and most required
vitamins and minerals.
It is a good idea to vary the choices among these
foods as each has distinct nutritional advantages. For
example, red meats and oysters are good sources of zinc.
Liver and egg yolks are valuable sources of vitamin A.
Dry beans, dry peas, soybeans, and nuts are worthwhile
sources of magnesium. The flesh of fish and poultry is
relatively low in calories and saturated fat. Some seeds
such as sunflower and sesame contribute
polyunsaturated fatty acids that are an essential part of
a balanced diet.
Cholesterol, like vitamin B12, occurs naturally only
in foods of animal origin. All meats contain cholesterol,
present in both the lean meat and the fat. The highest
concentration is found in organ meats and in egg yolks.
Fish and shellfish, except shrimp, are relatively low in
cholesterol. Dairy products also supply cholesterol.
The meat group is an excellent place to trim the fat
in the diet. Contrary to popular belief, red meat does not
need to be avoided. Red meat is a good source of
protein, iron, zinc, and several other important nutrients.
The idea is to cut down on large servings of meat-not
eliminate it entirely. Fish is naturally low in fat and so
are dry beans and peas.
To reduce fat from the meat group, choose lean
meats most of the time; take the skin off poultry; trim
any extra fat off meat; eat more fish, dry beans, and peas.
Trim the fat off meat; broil, roast, or simmer, instead of
frying. Nuts and seeds are high in fat, eat in moderation.
The following are some lean meat choices that you
should incorporate into your menu:
Beefroast or steaks from the round, loin,
sirloin, or chuck arm cuts.
Vealall cuts except ground.
Lambroasts or chops from the leg or loin cuts.
Porkroasts or chops from the tenderloin, center
loin, or ham cuts.
Chicken and turkeylight and dark meat
Fishmost are low in fat, those marinated or
canned in oil are higher.