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Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group
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Fats, Oils, and Sweets
buttermilk, and nonfat dry milk. A serving also may consist  of  yogurt,  ice  cream,  ice  milk,  and  cheese, including  cottage  cheese.  You  should  count  the following as examples of a serving from the this group: l One 8-ounce cup of milk or yogurt . 1 1/2 ounces of natural cheese l 2 ounces of processed cheese NUTRITIVE   VALUE.—   Milk  and  most  milk products  are  relied  on  to  provide  protein,  calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and B12. In fact, milk and most milk products are the major source of calcium in the American diet. Also,  liquid  milk  is fortified with vitamin D, which aids in the absorption of calcium. When fortified with vitamins A and D, low-fat or  skim  milk  products  have  essentially  the  same nutrients as whole milk products, but fewer calories and less fat content. Some  dairy  products  contain  large  amounts  of  fat and cholesterol. However,  low-fat  dairy  products contain  equivalent  amounts  of  calcium.  To  provide lower fat choices for your patrons, cook with nonfat dry milk;  serve  1  percent  low-fat  and  skim  milk;  offer low-fat yogurt and lower fat milk desserts, like ice milk or frozen yogurt.    Include cheese scheduling in your menu  planning.    For  example,  au  gratin  potatoes  and club  spinach  both  have  cheese.  Therefore,  limit  to  one dish of either per meal. Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group The food pyramid suggests 2 to 3 servings each day from this group, depending on a person’s activity level. The total amount of these servings should be equivalent to 5 to 7 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish per day. WHAT IS A SERVING?— It  includes  beef,  veal, lamb,  pork  poultry,  fish,  shellfish  (shrimp,  oysters, crabs, and so on), organ meats (liver, kidneys, and so on), dry beans or peas, soybeans, lentils, eggs, seeds, nuts,  peanuts,  and  peanut  butter. Counting to see if you have an equivalent of 5 to 7 ounces of cooked lean meat can be difficult. This is because portion sizes vary with the type of food and meal. For example, 6 ounces may come from one egg for breakfast (count as 1 ounce of of sliced turkey in a sandwich for of cooked hamburger for dinner. lean meat); 2 ounces lunch; and 3 ounces 7-9 NUTRITIVE VALUE.— Meat, poultry, and fish supply protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc. The other foods  in  this  group—dry  beans,  eggs,  and  nuts-are similar to meats in providing protein and most required vitamins and minerals. It is a good idea to vary the choices among these foods  as  each  has  distinct  nutritional  advantages.  For example, red meats and oysters are good sources of zinc. Liver and egg yolks are valuable sources of vitamin A. Dry beans, dry peas, soybeans, and nuts are worthwhile sources of magnesium. The flesh of fish and poultry is relatively low in calories and saturated fat. Some seeds such   as   sunflower   and   sesame   contribute polyunsaturated fatty acids that are an essential part of a balanced diet. Cholesterol, like vitamin B12, occurs naturally only in foods of animal origin. All meats contain cholesterol, present in both the lean meat and the fat. The highest concentration is found in organ meats and in egg yolks. Fish and shellfish, except shrimp, are relatively low in cholesterol.  Dairy  products  also  supply  cholesterol. The meat group is an excellent place to trim the fat in the diet. Contrary to popular belief, red meat does not need  to  be  avoided.  Red  meat  is  a  good  source  of protein, iron, zinc, and several other important nutrients. The  idea  is  to  cut  down  on  large  servings  of  meat-not eliminate it entirely. Fish is naturally low in fat and so are dry beans and peas. To reduce fat from the meat group, choose lean meats most of the time; take the skin off poultry; trim any extra fat off meat; eat more fish, dry beans, and peas. Trim the fat off meat; broil, roast, or simmer, instead of frying. Nuts and seeds are high in fat, eat in moderation. The following are some lean meat choices that you should incorporate into your menu: l l l l l l Beef—roast  or  steaks  from  the  round,  loin, sirloin, or chuck arm cuts. Veal—all cuts except ground. Lamb—roasts or chops from the leg or loin cuts. Pork—roasts or chops from the tenderloin, center loin, or ham cuts. Chicken  and  turkey—light  and  dark  meat without  skin. Fish—most are low in fat, those marinated or canned in oil are higher.

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