cooked in the shortest time possible and in a small
amount of water. Never use baking soda to preserve
color. Overcooking, cooking in too much water, or
using soda in the water destroys the nutrients you are
trying to conserve.
In fact, undercook rather than overcook vegetables.
This is especially applicable when you know the cooked
vegetable is to be placed on the steam table or is to have
a second heating or cooking period, such as creaming,
scalloping, or baking.
To determine if the vegetable is done, press pieces
of the vegetable between the thumb and forefinger and
taste the sample. If it is done, the vegetable should be
tender but have a definite bite quality.
Salads have an important place on the menu. They
contribute something both nutritious and refreshing to
the lunch or dinner meal. Fruit salads and vegetable
salads are the most popular. They also introduce
valuable vitamins, necessary minerals, and color into the
Salads can be made quickly and easily if a few
simple rules are followed. This is equally true for
individual salads that often seem more appetizing and
receive greater acceptance than a large dish of salad.
After a crisp, refreshing, and attractive salad is
produced, it should be served so that none of this
attractiveness is lost. Select a cool place for assembling
and serving the salad. Bring individual salads from the
refrigerator, a few at a time, so that they will remain
Salads consisting of fruits, vegetables, meat, or a
combination of these ingredients provide a good menu
for diet-conscious people or people who are trying to
Nearly all salads contain some fresh, crisp greens,
at least as a garnish; beyond that, however, the range of
ingredients is very wide. A salad may consist of greens
tossed with dressing, or it may consist of a combination
of vegetables or fruits (or both). There are also hearty
salads that may be used as the main dish of the meal.
SALAD GREENS. Select your salad greens
carefully. You have a wide choice of greens that are
suitable for a salad foundationlettuce, endive,
escarole, young spinach, and cabbage (fig 5-9.) These
may also be used as one of the main ingredients of the
salad itself. Parsley and the inner tender leaves of curly
endive are good for a garnish.
Sort, trim, wash, and crisp the greens before making
the salad. Wash them carefully to free them of sand and
earth particles. Drain them well. Hand cut the lettuce
and cabbage into strips or pieces. Place the prepared
greens in pans, cover them with wax paper or a damp
cloth, and refrigerate.
They should be drained
thoroughly and be free of excess water before they are
placed in the serving line. They should be one of the
very last parts of the meal to be prepared.
SALAD VEGETABLES. Fresh, canned, or
dehydrated vegetables may be used for salads. Select
the fresh vegetables with care. Wash them thoroughly.
Trim and peel them, if necessary, and cut them into
uniform sizes. Cook those that need cooking. When
canned vegetables are to be used in a salad, the liquid
drained from the cans should be reserved and used in
soups, sauces, or gravies. The canned vegetables may
be marinated in French dressing before being used in a
salad. Dehydrated cabbage, green peppers, onions, and
string beans may be reconstituted and used in salads.
Salads used for the main course for lunch or dinner
should be substantial and provide the food values
comparable to any other main dish.
SALAD FRUITS. Fruits add variety as well as
color and texture to the salad bar. Fresh, frozen, and
canned fruits maybe used.
The salad dressing is as important as the salad itself.
Each type of dressing can take on a new flavor by the
addition of different seasonings and herbs.
BASIC DRESSINGS. The two basic kinds of
salad dressings are French dressing and cooked salad
dressing. Commercial salad dressing is similar to
mayonnaise except that a cooked starch paste is added
and less oil is used than in mayonnaise. French dressing
is basically oil and vinegar to which many kinds of
seasonings may be added. Commercial French dressing
usually contains tomato paste or puree as well as
emulsifiers that keep the oil and vinegar from
SALAD DRESSING INGREDIENTS. A
variety of seasonings can be added to the oil and acid
basic ingredients (usually lemon juice or vinegar) of a
salad dressing to produce different kinds of dressings
that complement a specific type of salad.