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(2) willfully or through neglect damages,  destroys,  or  loses;  or (3) willfully or through neglect suffers   to   be   lost,   damaged, destroyed,   sold,   or   wrongfully disposed   of; any  military  property  of  the  United  States, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. Whether the property in question was issued to the accused, whether it was issued to someone other than the accused, or whether it was issued at all is immaterial. “Willful” means  intentional. “Neglect” means   inattention   to   duty   or   failure   to   take action  that,  under  the  circumstances,  should  have been  taken  to  prevent  the  loss,  destruction,  or damage. Art. 109. Property Other Than Military Property of United States—Waste, Spoilage, or Destruction Any  person  subject  to  this  code  who willfully  or  recklessly  wastes,  spoils,  or otherwise  willfully  and  wrongfully  destroys or   damages   any   property   other   than military property of the United States shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. “Wastes”  and  “spoils”  refer  to  wrongful  acts of  voluntary  destruction,  such  as  burning  down buildings, burning piers, tearing down fences, or cutting  down  trees.  To  be  destroyed,  property need be only sufficiently injured to be useless for the purpose for which it was intended. “Damage” consists  of  any  physical  injury  to  the  property. The property must be other than military property of  the  United  States  and  must  belong  to  one  other than the accused. Art. 110. Improper Hazarding of Vessel (a)  Any  person  subject  to  this  code who  willfully  and  wrongfully  hazards  or suffers  to  be  hazarded  any  vessel  of  the armed  forces  shall  suffer  death  or  such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. (b)  Any  person  subject  to  this  code who  negligently  hazards  or  suffers  to  be hazarded  any  vessel  of  the  armed  forces shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. The word “suffers” means to allow or permit. A  person  “suffers”  a  ship  to  be  hazarded  who, although not in direct control of the vessel, knows a danger to be imminent but takes no steps to pre- vent it. For example, a plotting officer of a ship underway  inadvertently  fails  to  report  observa- tion of a radar target on a collision course with, and  dangerously  close  to,  the  ship.  The  officer has negligently suffered the ship to be hazarded. Art. 111. Drunken or Reckless Driving Any  person  subject  to  this  code  who operates any vehicle while drunk, or in a reckless   or   wanton   manner,   shall   be punished  as  a  court-martial  may  direct. Operating a vehicle includes not only driving or guiding it while in motion. It also includes the setting  of  its  motive  power  in  action  or  the manipulating of its controls to cause the vehicle to  move.  The  term  “vehicle”  applies  to  all  types of  land  transportation,  whether  motor-driven  or passenger-carrying.  Drunken  or  reckless  opera- tion  of  water  or  air  transportation  may  be  charged as a violation of article 134. For the meaning of “drunk,”  see the remarks following article 112. Art. 112. Drunk on Duty Any person subject to this code, other than  a  sentinel  or  lookout,  who  is  found drunk  on  duty,  shall  be  punished  as  a court-martial  may  direct. The  term  “on  duty”  in  article  112  refers  to routine  or  detailed  duties  on  board  a  ship  or station. The term does not cover periods of leave or liberty (which come under a different article), but  does  include  duties  of  a  standby  nature.  A person  whose  mental  or  physical  abilities  are impaired  by  either  liquor  or  drugs  may  be  con- sidered  drunk. Art.  l12a.  Wrongful  Use,  Possession,  etc.,  of Controlled Substances (a)  Any  person  subject  to  this  code who wrongfully uses, possesses, manufac- tures,  distributes,  imports  into  the  customs territory  of  the  United  States,  exports  from the  United  States,  or  introduces  into  an 6-19

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