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The  misconception  of  intelligence  as  a  mysteri- ous, glamorous, and hazardous undertaking has been  derived  principally  from  two  sources.  The first  has  been  its  “cloak  and  dagger”  treatment in  popular  literature;  the  second  has  been  the natural reluctance of governments to disclose the inner  workings  oft  heir  intelligence  organizations. Because  of  the  critical  nature  of  intelligence  work, governments have surrounded this activity with the strictest of security regulations. Thus a void has  been  created  in  the  public’s  image  of intelligence work that has been filled by fictional versions. While intelligence work does have its exciting moments,  properly  understood  it  is  very  similar to  any  other  military  staff  function.  Generally, it  is  knowledge  upon  which  a  course  of  action  may be  safely  based.  In  its  entirety,  it  is  a  vast  and complex grouping of information covering a wide range of subjects. It includes closely interrelated subjects such as geography, transportation, tele- communications,  sociological  factors,  political conditions,   economic   conditions,   armed   forces, technical  developments,  and  biographical  data. Intelligence workers can make a valid “estimate of  a  situation”  only  by  considering  each  in  its relation  to  the  others. Since  intelligence  activities  have  three  basic purposes,  they  are  divided  into  three  functional segments: strategic   intelligence,   operational intelligence,  and  counterintelligence. Strategic  intelligence  is  used  mainly  by  top echelons  of  command  and  top-level  leaders  in government as the basis for national planning and policy.  That  is,  they  use  it  in  reaching  broad decisions  affecting  the  long-range  security  and welfare  of  a  nation. Operational  intelligence  helps  the  local commander decide what personnel and material to  use  against  an  adversary.  Local  commanders may   use   some   of   the   strategic   intelligence information  for  operational  purposes.  However, when  executing  a  planned  mission,  local commanders  require  much  more  detail  than strategic  (long-range)  planners. Counterintelligence is designed to destroy the effectiveness of the intelligence efforts of foreign nations.  For  a  nation  to  actively  collect  foreign intelligence about actual or potential enemies is not  enough.  A  nation  must  also  protect  its  own intelligence  information  from  the  prying  eyes  of other  powers.  Foreign  intelligence  is  actively  at work. The term Naval  Intelligence,  when   capitalized, refers  to  the  organization,  under  the  Commander, Naval   Intelligence   Command,   responsible   for carrying out the intelligence mission of the Navy. When not capitalized, the term naval intelligence refers  to  the  material  obtained,  processed,  and dispersed  to  appropriate  naval  authority. A distinction exists between information and intelligence. Information is the raw material and intelligence  is  the  finished  product.  Information becomes  intelligence  after  it  is  evaluated. In the United States Navy, the Chief of Naval Operations   (CNO)   supervises   the   intelligence function while the Director of Naval Intelligence (DNI) directs the total effort. The DNI carries out the   responsibilities   of   the   CNO   regarding intelligence,  cryptology,  and  security  matters.  The DNI is the principal staff adviser to the Secretary of   the   Navy   and   the   CNO   concerning   plans, programming, and policy matters involving naval intelligence. The DNI also assists and advises the CNO  in  exercising  command  over  the  Naval Intelligence  Command,  the  Naval  Investigative Service,  and  the  Naval  Security  Group  Command. The Office of Naval Intelligence maintains a relatively  small  staff  to  guide  and  support  the functions  of  its  headquarters.  The  Commander, Naval  Intelligence  Command  (COMNAVINT- COM),  controls  the  major  portion  of  the  func- tions  of  program  management  and  intelligence collection,   production,   and   dissemination. COMNAVINTCOM  also  serves  as  the  Deputy Director   of   Naval   Intelligence   (DDNI)   for Intelligence  Production  (OP-092D).  The  mission of  COMNAVINTCOM  is  to  ensure  the  Depart- ment  of  the  Navy  fulfills  its  security  and intelligence  requirements  and  responsibilities. RESEARCH  AND  DEVELOPMENT Because   of   the   personnel,   money,   and materials  involved,  the  research  and  development effort  in  the  Department  of  Defense  (DOD)  and its military branches is big business. The scientific and military strength of the United States depends heavily on the success of a comprehensive research program. DOD manages the research and development of all major military hardware/weapons systems. To a lesser degree, it manages scientific study in fields  related  to  long-term  national  security  needs. Fields of study include the engineering, environ- mental, biological-medical, and behavioral social sciences.  DOD  currently  authorizes  about  $40 billion   for   research,   development,   test,   and evaluation   (RDT&E). 13-11

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