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statutes were published. For example, a citation refer- ring to section 501 of Title 10 of the U.S.C. would read 10 U.S.C. $ 501 (1970). When Statutes at Large are cited, the volume and page number and date published would be used in the citation; for example, 47 Stat. 1470 (1933). However, in practice, reference is almost al- ways made to the U.S.C. You may have occasion to look up a statute that has not yet been incorporated into Statutes at Large or U.S.C. When this occurs, the statute is referred to by the public law number assigned to it. This number can be found in the slip law that is an advance publication of the statute printed as a means of disseminating this law before incorporating it into  Stat- utes at Large and the U.S.C.A citation using a public law  number  will  tell  what  session  of  Congress  passed the law, the number assigned to it, the section being referred to, and the date the law was enacted. An exam- ple of a citation using a public law number would read, Pub.L.No. 89-320, $ (Feb 11, 1965). This information can also help you find a public law in Statutes at Large. Citations  of  state  statutes  usually  refer  to  the  official code for that particular state. In cases where a state statute has not yet appeared in the official code for that state or if that state has no official code, then the citation usually  refers  to  the  preferred  unofficial  code.  For example, a citation referring to a particular statute published in chapter 41 of the Massachusetts General Laws  would  read  as  Mass.  Gen.  Laws  ch.  41,  $95 (1932), which also tells you what section is being re- ferred to and when the statue was published. State statutes  may  also  be  cited  referring  to  that  particular state’s published session laws, which are the state’s equivalent to Statutes at Large. Court  Decisions Court cases are cited by names (plaintiff v. defen- dant) excerpted from what is called the style of the case. The citation of a court case refers to both the official (where there is one) and unofficial reporter, followed by both the title of the court that made the decision and the year in parentheses. The citation will show you the volume and page number where the cited case may be found. For example, a citation referring to a case de- cided by the Supreme Court of Virginia would be shown as Henderson  v.  Commonwealth,  215 Va 811, 213 S.E. 2d 782 (1975). The title of the court is not shown in Henderson, supra, because citations to state court deci- sions are presumed to be referring to the highest court of that particular state unless some other court is named in  the  citation.  A  citation  to  a  case  decided  by  the District  Court  of  Appeals  in  Florida,  which  has  no official reporter, would be shown as  Lopez v. State, 372 So. 2d 1136 (FL Ct. App 1979). Where a court decision has not yet been published in an official or unofficial report, the citation will refer to the slip opinion (an opinion printed in advance of the publishing of the case decision in an official and unofficial reporter) and will cite the style of the case, docket number, the court of record, and the date the case was decided. Normally, citations of cases will provide you with the following information: the name (style) of the case, the name of the reporter and the volume the case can be found in, the  page  number  where  the  opinion  begins,  the  court that decided the case, and the year or date the decision was made. For example,  United States v. Mathew’s, 6 M.J. 357 (CMA 1979) refers to a case decided by the U.S.C.M.A. in 1979 and can be found in volume 6 of the Military Justice Reporter  on  page  357.  Additional information concerning case citations and what they mean can be found in the U.S.O.C., JAG Instruction 5850.2,  and  Price  and  Bitner’s   Effective   Legal Research. Other  Sources A citation for a treatise would refer to the volume number (if more than one), the author, title, page, sec- tion or paragraph number, edition (if more than one have appeared), and the date the treatise was published. For example, a treatise on the History of English Law would be shown as 1 F. Pollock & F. Maitland.  The History of English Law  518 (2d ed. 1898). Citations of legal writings contained in journals and periodicals that are paginated consecutively throughout a volume refer to that volume number, abbreviated title of the peri- odical or journal, page number and year published, as well as the title of the article and name of the author. For example, a citation for an article appearing in the Harvard Law Review would be shown as Chafee, Equi- table  Servitudes  on  Chattles,   41 Har.  L.  Rev.  945 (1928). Legal encyclopedias are referred to in citations by volume,  abbreviated  title  of  the  encyclopedia,  subject title, section number, and date printed. For example, a citation referring to contracts in American Jurispru- dence 2d would appear as 12 Am. Jur. 2d Contracts $ 15 (1965). AUTOMATED RESEARCH SYSTEMS As you progress in your career as an LN, you will witness that even the legal field is going high tech, Computers are here and the effects of their existence are already being felt. Legal research is fast becoming part 2-17

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