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Cruise Missiles
a moving target with a projectile that takes a con- siderable length of time to arrive at its destination. Accordingly,  the  gun  cannot  be  aimed  at  the  point where  the  target  is  when  detected.  It  must  be aimed at the point where the target will be when the  projectile  gets  there;  that  is,  the  predicted position  of  the  target.  Furthermore,  the  path  of the projectile is not a straight line but is curved by gravity. Wind, variations in atmospheric den- sity, and other forces also affect the path of the projectile.   In   addition,   the   guns   and   the   fire control equipment are mounted on a ship that is rolling,  pitching,  and  moving  through  water. The  fire  control  equipment  that  solves  this problem  is  usually  known  as  a  gun  fire  control system.  Each  battery  frequently  has  more  than one of these systems. The whole battery may be controlled by one system or may be broken down into smaller groups, each controlled by a separate system. A  gun  fire  control  system  generally  consists of two parts, one above deck and the other below deck   in   a   protected   position.   The   above-deck portion consists principally of a gun director that acts as the eyes of the battery. It is trained and elevated so that its optics and radar are always directed toward the target, thus establishing a line of  sight.  Directors  vary  in  size  and  complexity. Some are large rotating structures with complex electrical   driving   equipment   while   others   are small,  hand-operated  devices. Introduction  of  radar  into  the  fire  control system  has  greatly  enhanced  its  flexibility  and accuracy. Radar provides more accurate range as well as target direction data that is almost as good as  the  best  optics. The  below-deck  components  of  the  system usually  consist  of  a  computer  and  other  related equipment, although the computer is sometimes part of the director. The computer receives data about target coordinates from the director and/or radar. It uses built-in data about the wind, motion of the ship, atmosphere, and the projectile path. It then computes this data into orders needed for the guns to aim properly to hit the target. These orders  are  transmitted  directly  to  the  train  and elevation  power  drives  of  the  gun  mounts  or turrets. Computers  make  use  of  complex  electrical  and mechanical  components  to  perform  continuous complex calculations. Some are entirely mechani- cal,  with  quantities  represented  by  positions  of shafts; others   are   electromechanical,   with quantities   represented   by   both   positions   and voltages. All   naval   ships   now   use   gun   fire   control equipment. SURFACE-LAUNCHED   ANTIAIR WARFARE  (AAW)  MISSILES The Navy uses surface-launched missiles both as   offensive   and   defensive   weapons.   Surface- launched  missiles  are  used  to  destroy  surface, land,   and   air   targets.   The   following   sections briefly  describe  some  of  the  Navy’s  surface- launched missiles. In   an   antiair   warfare   (AAW)   operation, guided  missiles  are  the  second  line  of  defense.  The first line of defense is aircraft. The AAW missiles in  the  Navy’s  current  inventory  include  the Standard  and  Sea  Sparrow  missiles. STANDARD The Standard family of missiles is one of the most  reliable  in  the  Navy’s  inventory.  Entering the fleet more than a decade ago, it replaced the Tartar  and  Terrier  missiles.  The  Standard  missile can be used against missiles, aircraft, and ships. Some  of  the  older  guided-missile  destroyers (DDGs)  and  the  Oliver  Hazard  Perry-class  frigates use  the  SM-1(MR)  as  a  medium-range  defense weapon.    The   SM-2(MR)   is   a   medium-range defense   weapon   for   Ticonderoga-class   Aegis cruisers,  California-  and  Virginia-class  cruisers, Arleigh  Burke-class  destroyers,  and  Kidd-class destroyers. Characteristics   of   the   SM-1(MR)   and SM-2(MR)  missiles: Length: 14 feet, 7 inches Diameter: 13.5 inches Wing  span: 3 feet, 6 inches Weight: SM-1-1,100  pounds; SM-2-1,380  pounds Range: More than 15 nautical miles The   SM-2(ER)   is   an   extended-range   area defense   weapon   for   the   Leahy,   Belnap, Bainbridge, Truxton, and Long Beach classes of cruisers. 20-4

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