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Develop Sanitary Work Habits - 14164_16
Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Some  of  the  desirable  work  habits  that  personnel should  develop  to  prevent  personal  contamination  areas follows: . Spoons, knives, and forks should be picked up or touched only by their handles. l Cups, glasses, and bowls should be handled so that fingers and thumb do not contact inside surfaces or lip-contact  surfaces. l  Portable-  and  fixed-food  preparation  equipment should  be  stored  so  that  they  require  minimum handling by personnel. Improper storage ruins the effect of  sanitizing,  and  excess  handling  will  introduce contaminating  material. .  Disposable  dinnerware  must  be  handled  and dispensed to prevent contamination of surfaces that come in contact with food or with the mouth of the user. . Tongs, picks, spatulas, scoops, dipping spoons, and other suitable utensils must be used in such a manner to keep manual contact with food at a minimum. Figure 1-1 shows some of the good daily health habits  for  foodservice  personnel. REPORT  PERSONAL  ILLNESS  AND  ALL MINOR INFECTIONS.—  Boils  and  sore  throats  are sources of bacteria that can cause severe food-borne diseases. When ill, report it and make arrangements to be relieved of duty. Sores, rashes of any kind, pimples, or other skin eruptions as well as cuts should be reported and  medical  aid  solicited  as  soon  as  possible.  Both supervisory  personnel  and  operators  are  responsible  for notifying medical personnel if a disease is suspected. APPLY   PROFESSIONAL   TRAINING   AND TECHNIQUES.—  All  personnel  must  be  alert  to  the hazards  associated  with  speedup  methods  and  shortcuts to washing and sanitizing operations. Techniques of sanitizing— including   times,   temperatures,   and routines—should  be  memorized  and  applied.  The effectiveness of sanitation is directly related to the competence  and  cooperation  of  foodservice  personnel. COMPLY   WITH   SANITARY   REGU- LATIONS.—  Public health ordinances and regulations imposed  by  the  Bureau  of  Medicine  and  Surgery (BUMED)  must  be  observed  in  day-to-day  foodservice operations. Recognized   standards   of   sanitation embracing   accepted   public   health   principles   are prescribed  by  these  sources  and  administration  of regulations at each activity will be enforced. Figure 1-2 shows correct and safe work habits you should develop and practice. PRECAUTIONS Most food-borne disease outbreaks are due to four factors:  (1)  preparation  of  food  too  far  in  advance, (2) poor refrigeration of food, (3) careless handling of food,  and  (4)  failure  of  personnel  to  follow  good personal  hygiene  habits. The following precautions should be observed in preparing and serving food: .  Food  should  be  served  promptly  after  it  is prepared. . Any food that has been ground or chopped and is to be cooked later or incorporated in a prepared dish must  be  refrigerated  immediately.  Such  ground  or chopped  food  should  be  refrigerated  until  cooked; once  cooked,  they  should  never  be  saved  as  leftovers. When  food  is  ground,  an  increase  in  the  area  of contamination and growth of harmful bacteria results. When chilled foods are ground, the grinding process warms the food to the point where bacteria growth may  start. .  Place  meats  that  are  cut,  sliced,  or  diced  in shallow containers, cover with lids or with waxed paper, and refrigerate immediately. The temperature of the meat-cutting  room  should  be  maintained  at  50°F. Improper handling of meats can result in spoilage as well as in the transmission of disease. . If you are using individual serving containers, do not put ice on top of containers. . All fresh pork products must be cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F or above. Never serve raw  pork  products. l Keep foods covered at all times except during actual preparation and serving. l  Palletize  all  subsistence  items  in  storage  spaces to  facilitate  cleaning  and  air  circulation. l Keep all worktables and benches clean at all times. . Store food off the deck. . Keep food preparation utensils, meat grinders, and other similar equipment clean and handle them properly. Food that comes in contact with equipment that  is  contaminated  becomes  contaminated  also. .  Wash  your  hands  before  preparing  food. 1-7

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